References for Hypobranchial Muscular Anatomy


  • Ashton EH & Oxnard CE. 1963. The musculature of the primate shoulder. Trans Zoo1 Soc Lond 29:553-650.
  • Aziz MA. 1980. Anatomical defects in a case of trisomy 13 with a D/D translocation. Teratology 22:217-227.
  • Aziz MA. 1981. Possible "atavistic" structures in human aneuploids. Am J Phys Anthropol 54:347-53.
  • Beddard FE. 1893. Contributions to the anatomy of the anthropoid apes. Trans Zool Soc Lond 13:177-218.
  • Bischoff TLW. 1870. Beitrage zur Anatornie des Hylobates leuciscus and zueiner vergleichenden Anatomie der Muskeln der Affen und des Menschen. Abh Bayer Akad Wiss Miinchen Math Phys Kl 10:197-297.
  • Bischoff TLW. 1880. Beitrage zur Anatomie des Gorilla. Abh Bayer Akad Wiss Miinchen Math Phys Kl 13:1-48.
  • Bluntschli H. 1929. Die kaumuskulatur des Orang-Utan und ihre Bedeutung für die Formung des Schädels. Gegen Morphol Jahrb 63:531-606.
  • Brandes G. 1932. Über den Kehlkopf des Orang-Utans in verschiedenen Altersstadien mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Kehlsackfrage. Gegenbaur Morph Jahrb 69:1.61.
  • Brown B, Ward SC. 1988. Basicranial and facial topography in Pongo and Sivapithecus. In: Orang-Utan Biology (ed. Schwartz JH), pp.247-260. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Champneys F. 1872. The muscles and nerves of a Chimpanzee (Troglodytes Niger) and a Cynocephalus Anubis. J Anat Physiol 6:176-211.
  • Chapman HC. 1879. On the structure of the chimpanzee. Proc Acad Nat Sci Philad 31:52-63.
  • Chapman HC. 1880. On the structure of the orang outang. Proc Acad Nat Sci Philad 32:160-175.
  • Clegg M. 2001. The comparative anatomy and evolution of the human vocal tract. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of London.
  • Crelin ES. 1987. The human vocal tract: anatomy, function, development, and evolution. New York: Vantage Press Inc.
  • Dean MC. 1984. Comparative myology of the hominoid cranial base, I, the muscular relationships and bony attachments of the digastric muscle. Folia Primatol 43:234-48.
  • Deniker J. 1885. Recherches anatomiques et embryologiques sur les singes anthropoides, foetus de gorille et de gibbon. Arch Zool Exp Génerale 3:1–265.
  • DuBrul EL. 1958. Evolution of the speech apparatus. Springfield: Thomas.
  • Duchin LE. 1990. The evolution of human speech: comparative anatomy of the oral cavity in Pan and Homo. J Hum Evo1 19:687-697.
  • Dunlap SS, Thorington RW, Aziz MA. 1985. Forelimb anatomy of New World monkeys: myology and the interpretation of primitive anthropoid models. Am J Phys Anthropol 68:499-517.
  • Duvernoy M. 1855-1856. Des caracteres anatomiques de grands singes pseudoanthropomorphes anthropomorphes. Arch Mus Natl Hist Nat Paris 8:1-248.
  • Edgeworth FH. 1935. The cranial muscles of vertebrates. Cambridge: University press.
  • Fick R. 1895a. Vergleichend-anatomische Studien an einem erwachsenen Orang-utang. Arch Anat Physiol Anat Abt 1895:1-100.
  • Fick R. 1895b. Beobachtungen an einem zweiten envachsenen Orang-Utang und einem Schimpansen. Arch Anat Physiol Anat Abt 1895:289-318.
  • Gibbs S. 1999. Comparative soft tissue morphology of the extant Hominoidea, including Man. Unpublished PhD Thesis, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool.
  • Gibbs S, Collard M, Wood BA. 2002. Soft-tissue anatomy of the extant hominoids: a review and phylogenetic analysis. J Anat 200:3-49.
  • Göllner K. 1982. Untersuchungen über die vom N. trigeminus innervierte Kiefermusculatur des Schimpansen (Pan troglodytes, Blumenbach 1799) und des Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla, Savage and Wyman 1847)]. Gegen Morphol Jahrb 128:851-903.
  • Gratiolet LP, Alix PHE. 1866. Recherches sur l'anatomie du Troglodytes aubryi. Nouv Arch Mus Hist Nat Paris 2:1-264.
  • Groves CP. 1986. Systematics of the great apes. In Comparative Primate Biology: Systematics, Evolution and Anatomy, Vol. 1 (D.R Swindler, J Erwin, eds.), A.R. Liss, New York, pp. 187-217.
  • Groves CP. 1995. Revised character descriptions for Hominoidea. Typescript, 9 pp.
  • Hartmann R. 1886. Anthropoid apes. London: Keegan.
  • Hill WCO. 1939. Observations on a giant Sumatran orang. Am J Phys Anthropol 24:449-510.
  • Hilloowala RA. 1980. The migrating omohyoid muscle - its significance? J Human Evol 9:165-172.
  • Himmelreich HA. 1971. M. levator veli palatini der Säugetiere. Gegenbaurs Morphol Jahrb 116:377-400.
  • Himmelreich HA. 1977. M. cephalopharyngeus der Säugetiere. Gegenbaurs Morphol Jahrb 123:556-588.
  • Hosokawa H, Kamiya T. 1961-1962. Anatomical sketches of visceral organs of the mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei). Primates 3:1-28.
  • Kallner M. 1956. Die muskulatur und die funktion des schultergurtels und der vorderextremitat des orang-utans. Morph Jahrb 97:554-665.
  • Kanagasuntheram R. 1952-1954. Observations on the anatomy of the hoolock gibbon. Ceylon J Sci Sect G 5:11-64(1952) + 69-122(1954).
  • Kelemen G. 1948.The anatomical basis of phonation in the chimpanzee. J Morphol 82:229-256.
  • Kohlbrügge JHF. 1890-1892. Versuch einer Anatomie des Genus Hylobates. In: Weber M (ed.), Zoologische Ergebnisse Einer Reise in Niederländisch Ost-Indien. Leiden: Verlag von EJ Brill; pp. 211–354 (Vol. 1), 138-208 (Vol. 2).
  • Kohlbrügge JHF. 1897. Muskeln und Periphere Nerven der Primaten, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung ihrer Anomalien. Verh K Akad Wet Amsterdam Sec 2 5:1–246.
  • Jordan J. 1971b. Studies on the structure of the organ of voice and vocalization in the chimpanzee, Part 2. Folia Morphol 30:222-248.
  • Laitman JT, Heimbuch RC, Crelin ES 1978. Developmental change in a basicranial line and its relationship to the upper respiratory system in living primates. Amer J Anat 152: 467-482.
  • Le Gros Clark WE. 1924. The myology of the tree-shrew (Tupaia minor). Proc Zool Soc Lond 1924:461-497.
  • Lehr RP. 1979. Musculus levator glandulae thyroideae: an observation. Anat Anz 146:494-496.
  • Lewis WH. 1910. The development of the muscular system. In: Manual of Human Embryology, Vol. 1 (Keibel F, Mall FP, Eds.). Lippin-cott, Philadelphia, pp. 454-522.
  • Loth E. 1931. Anthropologie des parties molles (muscles, intestins, vaisseaux, nerfs peripheriques). Paris: Mianowski-Masson et Cie.
  • MacAlister A. 1871. On some points in the myology of the chimpanzee and others of the primates. Ann Mag Nat Hist 7:341-351.
  • Macalister A. 1873. The muscular anatomy of the gorilla. Proc Royal Irish Acad, Ser 2, 1:501-506.
  • Michaëlis P. 1903. Beitrage zur vergleichenden Myologie des Cynocephalus babuin, Simia satyrus, Troglodytes niger. Arch Anat Phys Anat Abt 1:205-256.
  • Miller RA. 1952. The musculature of Pan paniscus. Am J Anat 91:182-232.
  • Netter FH. 2006. Atlas of human anatomy (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.
  • Owen R. 1830-1831. On the anatomy of the orangutan (Simia satyrus, L.). Proc Zool Soc Lond 1:4-5, 9-10, 28-29, 66-72.
  • Parsons FG. 1898a. The muscles of mammals, with special relation to human myology, Lecture 1, The skin muscles and muscles of the head and neck. J Anat Physiol 32:428-450.
  • Primrose A. 1899. The anatomy of the orang-outang (Simia satyrus), an account of some of its external characteristics, and the myology of the extremities. Trans Royal Can Inst 6:507-594.
  • Primrose A. 1900. The anatomy of the orang-outang. Univ Toronto Stud Anat Ser 1:1-94.
  • Rajalakshmi R, Anu R, Soubhagya N, Rajanigandha V, Pai M, Ashwin K. 2008. A study of anatomical variability of the omohyoid muscle and its clinical relevance. Clinics 63:521-524.
  • Raven HC. 1950. Regional anatomy of the Gorilla. In: Gregory WK (ed.), The anatomy of the Gorilla. Columbia University Press, New York, p. 15-188.
  • Richmond BG. 1993. Anatomy of the orang-utan, Pongo pygmaeus abelii. Unpublished work. State University of New York, Stony Brook.
  • Saban R. 1968. Musculature de la tête. In: Grassé PP, editor. Traité de Zoologie, XVI: 3 (Mammifères). Paris: Masson et Cie. p. 229-472.
  • Sakka M. 1973. Anatomie comparée de l’écaille de l'occipital (squama occipitalis P.N.A.) et des muscles de la nuque chez l'homme et les pongidés, II Partie, Myologie. Mammalia 37:126–180.
  • Sakka M. 1977. Ensembles anatomiques cervico-céphaliques: port de tête et évolution des hominides, conséquences phylogéniques sur Australopithecus. Mallalia 41:85-109.
  • Sandifort G. 1840. Ontleedkundige beschouwing van een′ volwassen Orang-oetan (Simia satyrus, Linn.) van het mannelijk geslacht. Verhandelingen over de Natuurlijke geschiedenis der Nederlandische overzeesche bezittingen, door de leden der Natuurkundige commissie in Indië en andere. Schrijvers (Zoologie) 3:29–56.
  • Shoshani J, Groves CP, Simons EL, Gunnell F. 1996. Primate phylogeny: morphological vs molecular results. Mol Phylogenet Evol 5:102-154.
  • Sommer A. 1907. Das Muskelsystem des Gorilla. Jena Z Naturwiss 42:181-308.
  • Sonntag CF. 1923. On the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the chimpanzee. Proc Zool Soc Lond 23:323-429.
  • Sonntag CF. 1924a. On the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the orang-outan. Proc Zool Soc Lond 24:349-450.
  • Sonntag CF. 1924b. The morphology and evolution of the apes and man. London: John Bale Sons and Danielsson, Ltd.
  • Sperino G. 1897. Anatomia del cimpanzè (Anthropopithecus Troglodytes). Torino: Unione Tipografica.
  • Sprague JA. 1943. The hyoid region of placental mammals with special reference to the bats. Am J Anat 72:385-472.
  • Sprague JA. 1944a. The hyoid region in the insectivora. Am J Anat 74:175-216.
  • Starck D, Schneider R. 1960. Respirationsorgane. In Primatologia III/2 (ed. Hofer H, Schultz AH, Starck D). S. Karger, Basel, pp. 423-587.
  • Stewart TD. 1936. The musculature of the anthropoids, I, neck and trunk. Am J Phys Anthropol 21:141-204.
  • Swindler DR, Wood CD. 1973. An atlas of primate gross anatomy: baboon, chimpanzee and men. Seattle, University of Washington Press.
  • Terminologia Anatomica. 1998. Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology. Stuttgard: Georg Thieme.
  • Testut L. 1884. Les anomalies musculaires chez l’homme expliquèes par l’anatomie comparée et leur importance en anthropologie. Paris: Masson.
  • Toldt C. 1905. Der Winkelforsatz des Unterkiefers beim Menschen und bei den Saugetieren und die Beziehungen der Kaumuskeln zu demselben II Teil. Sitz Kaiserl Akad Wiss Wien Mathem-naturw Klasse Bd 114:315-476.
  • Toldt C. 1907. Der vordere Bauch des M. Digastricus mand. und seine Variationen beim Menschen. Sitz Akad Wiss Wien 116:1-373.
  • Toldt C. 1908. Der vordere Bauch des M. digastricus mandibulae und seine Varietaten beim Menschen, II. Sitz Akad Wiss Wien 117:229-231.
  • Tyson E. 1699. Orang-Outang sive Homo sylvestris, or the anatomy of a pygmie compared to that of a monkey, an ape and a man. T. Bennet: London.
  • Virchow H. 1915. Gesichtsmuskeln des Schimpansen. Abh Preuss Akad Wiss 1:l-81.
  • Vrolik W. 1841. Recherches d' anatornie comparé, sur le chimpanzé. Johannes Miller, Amsterdam.
  • Wall CE, Larson SG, Stern JT. 1994. EMG of the digastric muscle in gibbon and orangutan: functional consequences of the loss of the anterior digastric in orangutans. Am J Phys Anthropol 94: 549-567.
  • Wind J. 1970. On the phylogeny and ontogeny of the human larynx. Groningen: Wolters-Noordhoff.




References from R. Diogo


  • Diogo R (2004a) Morphological evolution, aptations, homoplasies, constraints, and evolutionary trends: catfishes as a case study ongeneral phylogeny and macroevolution. Enfield: Science Publishers.
  • Diogo R (2004b) Muscles versus bones: catfishes as a case study for an analysis on the contribution of myological and osteological structures in phylogenetic reconstructions. Anim Biol 54, 373-391.
  • Diogo R (2005) Evolutionary convergences and parallelisms: their theoretical differences and the difficulty of discriminating them in a practical phylogenetic context. Biol Philos 20, 735-744.
  • Diogo R (2007) On the origin and evolution of higher-clades: osteology, myology, phylogeny and macroevolution of bony fishes and the rise of tetrapods. Enfield: Science Publishers.
  • Diogo R (2008) Comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles of bony fish and tetrapods: a new insight. Anim Biol 58, 123-172.
  • Diogo R. 2009. The head musculature of the Philippine colugo (Dermoptera: Cynocephalus volans), with a comparison to tree-shrews, primates and other mammals. J Morphol 270:14-51.
  • Diogo R, Chardon M (2000) Homologies between different adductor mandibulae sections of teleostean fishes, with a special regard to catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes). J Morphol 243, 193-208.
  • Diogo R, Abdala V (2007). Comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pectoral muscles of bony fish and tetrapods: a new insight. J Morphol 268, 504-517.
  • Diogo R, Abdala V (2010). Muscles of Vertebrates – comparative anatomy, evolution, homologies and development. Enfield: Science Publishers.
  • Diogo R, Wood BA (in press) Soft-tissue anatomy of the primates: phylogenetic analyses based on the muscles of the head, neck, pectoral region and the upper limb, with notes on the evolution of these muscles. J Anat.
  • Diogo R, Oliveira C, Chardon M (2001) On the osteology and myology of catfish pectoral girdle, with a reflection on catfish (Teleostei: Siluriformes) plesiomorphies. J Morphol 249, 100-125.
  • Diogo R, Hinits Y, Hughes SM (2008a) Development of mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles in the zebrafish: homologies and evolution of these muscles within bony fishes and tetrapods. BMC Dev Biol 8, 24-46.
  • Diogo R, Abdala V, Lonergan N, Wood BA (2008b) From fish to modern humans - comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the head and neck musculature. J Anat 213, 391-424.
  • Diogo R, Abdala V, Aziz MA, Lonergan N, Wood BA (2009a) From fish to modern humans - comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pectoral and forelimb musculature. J Anat 214, 694-716.
  • Diogo R, Wood BA, Aziz MA, Burrows A (2009b) On the origin, homologies and evolution of primate facial muscles, with a particular focus on hominoids and a suggested unifying nomenclature for the facial muscles of the Mammalia. J Anat 215, 300-319.
  • Diogo R, Potau JM, Pastor JF, de Paz FJ, Ferrero EM, Bello G, Barbosa M, Wood B (2010) Photographic and Descriptive Musculoskeletal Atlas of Gorilla. Enfield: Science Publishers.
  • Diogo R, Matthews LJ, Wood BA (submitted) Morphological data support a Pan, Homo clade. Nature.




References for Mandibular Muscular Anatomy


  • Adams LA. 1919. A memoir on the phylogeny of the jaw muscles in recent and fossil vertebrates. Ann NY Acad Sci 28:51-166.
  • Aiello L, Dean C. 1990. An introduction to human evolutionary anatomy. San Diego: Academic Press.
  • Aziz MA. 1980. Anatomical defects in a case of trisomy 13 with a D/D translocation. Teratology 22:217-227.
  • Aziz MA. 1981. Possible "atavistic" structures in human aneuploids. Am J Phys Anthropol 54:347-53.
  • Bijvoet WF. 1908. Zur vergleichenden Morphologie des Musculus digastricus mandibulae bai den Säugetieren. Zeit Morphol Anthropol 11:249-316.
  • Bischoff TLW. 1870. Beitrage zur Anatornie des Hylobates leuciscus and zueiner vergleichenden Anatomie der Muskeln der Affen und des Menschen. Abh Bayer Akad Wiss Miinchen Math Phys Kl 10:197-297.
  • Bischoff TLW. 1880. Beitrage zur Anatomie des Gorilla. Abh Bayer Akad Wiss Miinchen Math Phys Kl 13:1-48.
  • Bluntschli H. 1929. Die kaumuskulatur des Orang-Utan und ihre Bedeutung für die Formung des Schädels. Gegen Morphol Jahrb 63:531-606.
  • Boyer EL. 1939. The cranio-mandibular musculature of the orang-utan, Simia satyrus. Am J Phys Anthropol 24:417-427.
  • Brown B, Ward SC. 1988. Basicranial and facial topography in Pongo and Sivapithecus. In: Orang-Utan Biology (ed. Schwartz JH), pp.247-260. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Cachel S. 1984. Growth and allometry in primate masticatory muscles. Arch Oral Biol 29:287-293.
  • Cave AJE. 1979. The mammalian temporo-pterygoid ligament. J Zool Lond 188:517-532.
  • Chapman HC. 1879. On the structure of the chimpanzee. Proc Acad Nat Sci Philad 31:52-63.
  • Chapman HC. 1880. On the structure of the orang outang. Proc Acad Nat Sci Philad 32:160-175.
  • Clegg M. 2001. The comparative anatomy and evolution of the human vocal tract. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of London.
  • Dean MC. 1984. Comparative myology of the hominoid cranial base, I, the muscular relationships and bony attachments of the digastric muscle. Folia Primatol 43:234-48.
  • Dean MC. 1985. Comparative myology of the hominoid cranial base - II - the muscles of the prevertebral and upper pharyngeal region. Folia Primatol 44:40-51.
  • Deniker J. 1885. Recherches anatomiques et embryologiques sur les singes anthropoides, foetus de gorille et de gibbon. Arch Zool Exp Génerale 3:1–265.
  • DuBrul EL. 1958. Evolution of the speech apparatus. Springfield: Thomas.
  • Duchin LE. 1990. The evolution of human speech: comparative anatomy of the oral cavity in Pan and Homo. J Hum Evo1 19:687-697.
  • Duvernoy M. 1855-1856. Des caracteres anatomiques de grands singes pseudoanthropomorphes anthropomorphes. Arch Mus Natl Hist Nat Paris 8:1-248.
  • Edgeworth FH. 1935. The cranial muscles of vertebrates. Cambridge: University press.
  • Fick R. 1895a. Vergleichend-anatomische Studien an einem erwachsenen Orang-utang. Arch Anat Physiol Anat Abt 1895:1-100.
  • Fick R. 1895b. Beobachtungen an einem zweiten envachsenen Orang-Utang und einem Schimpansen. Arch Anat Physiol Anat Abt 1895:289-318.
  • Gibbs S. 1999. Comparative soft tissue morphology of the extant Hominoidea, including Man. Unpublished PhD Thesis, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool.
  • Gibbs S, Collard M, Wood BA. 2002. Soft-tissue anatomy of the extant hominoids: a review and phylogenetic analysis. J Anat 200:3-49.
  • Göllner K. 1982. Untersuchungen über die vom N. trigeminus innervierte Kiefermusculatur des Schimpansen (Pan troglodytes, Blumenbach 1799) und des Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla, Savage and Wyman 1847)]. Gegen Morphol Jahrb 128:851-903.
  • Gorniak GC. 1985. Trends in the action of mammalian masticatory muscles. Am Zool 25:331-337.
  • Gratiolet LP, Alix PHE. 1866. Recherches sur l'anatomie du Troglodytes aubryi. Nouv Arch Mus Hist Nat Paris 2:1-264.
  • Gregory WK. 1929. Our face from fish to man. New York: GP Putnam’s Sons.
  • Groves CP. 1986. Systematics of the great apes. In Comparative Primate Biology: Systematics, Evolution and Anatomy, Vol. 1 (D.R Swindler, J Erwin, eds.), A.R. Liss, New York, pp. 187-217.
  • Groves CP. 1995. Revised character descriptions for Hominoidea. Typescript, 9 pp.
  • Hartmann R. 1886. Anthropoid apes. London: Keegan.
  • Herring SW, Herring SE. 1974. The superficial masseter and gape in mammals. Am Nat 108:56 1-576.
  • Hill WCO. 1939. Observations on a giant Sumatran orang. Am J Phys Anthropol 24:449-510.
  • Himmelreich HA. 1971. M. levator veli palatini der Säugetiere. Gegenbaurs Morphol Jahrb 116:377-400.
  • Himmelreich HA. 1977. M. cephalopharyngeus der Säugetiere. Gegenbaurs Morphol Jahrb 123:556-588.
  • Hosokawa H, Kamiya T. 1961-1962. Anatomical sketches of visceral organs of the mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei). Primates 3:1-28.
  • Kanagasuntheram R. 1952-1954. Observations on the anatomy of the hoolock gibbon. Ceylon J Sci Sect G 5:11-64(1952) + 69-122(1954).
  • Kawai K, Koizumi M, Honma S, Tokiyoshi A, Kodama K. 2003. Derivation of the anterior belly of the digastric muscle receiving twigs from the mylohyoid and facial nerves. Ann. Anat 185:85–90.
  • Kohlbrügge JHF. 1890-1892. Versuch einer Anatomie des Genus Hylobates. In: Weber M (ed.), Zoologische Ergebnisse Einer Reise in Niederländisch Ost-Indien. Leiden: Verlag von EJ Brill; pp. 211–354 (Vol. 1), 138-208 (Vol. 2).
  • Kohlbrügge JHF. 1897. Muskeln und Periphere Nerven der Primaten, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung ihrer Anomalien. Verh K Akad Wet Amsterdam Sec 2 5:1–246.
  • Laitman JT. 1977. The Ontogenetic and phylogenetic development of the upper respiratory system and basicranium in man. Unpublished PhD thesis, Yale University.
  • Le Gros Clark WE. 1924. The myology of the tree-shrew (Tupaia minor). Proc Zool Soc Lond 1924:461-497.
  • Le Gros Clark WE. 1926. On the anatomy of the pen-tailed tree-shrew (Ptilocercus lowii). Proc Zool Soc Lond 1926:1178-1309.
  • Lewis WH. 1910. The development of the muscular system. In: Manual of Human Embryology, Vol. 1 (Keibel F, Mall FP, Eds.). Lippin-cott, Philadelphia, pp. 454-522.
  • Lightoller GS. 1939. Probable homologues. A study of the comparative anatomy of the mandibular and hyoid arches and their musculature - Part I - comparative myology. Trans Zool Soc Lond 24:349-382.
  • Loth E. 1931. Anthropologie des parties molles (muscles, intestins, vaisseaux, nerfs peripheriques). Paris: Mianowski-Masson et Cie.
  • MacAlister A. 1871. On some points in the myology of the chimpanzee and others of the primates. Ann Mag Nat Hist 7:341-351.
  • Macalister A. 1873. The muscular anatomy of the gorilla. Proc Royal Irish Acad, Ser 2, 1:501-506.
  • Maier W. 2008. Epitensoric position of the chorda tympani in Anthropoidea: a new synapomorphic character, with remarks on the fissura glaseri in Primates. In Mammalian Evolutionary Morphology: a Tribute to Frederick S. Szalay. Springer, Dordrecht. pp. 339-352.
  • Miller AJ. 1991. Craniomandibular muscles: their role in function and form. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, Florida.
  • Miller RA. 1952.The musculature of Pan paniscus. Am J Anat 91:182-232.
  • Owen R. 1830-1831. On the anatomy of the orangutan (Simia satyrus, L.). Proc Zool Soc Lond 1:4-5, 9-10, 28-29, 66-72.
  • Parsons FG. 1898a. The muscles of mammals, with special relation to human myology, Lecture 1, The skin muscles and muscles of the head and neck. J Anat Physiol 32:428-450.
  • Radlanski RJ, Renz H, Tabatabai A. 2001. Prenatal development of the muscles in the floor of the mouth in human embryos and fetuses from 6.9 to 76 mm CRL. Anat Anz 183:511-518.
  • Raven HC. 1950. Regional anatomy of the Gorilla. In: Gregory WK (ed.), The anatomy of the Gorilla. Columbia University Press, New York, p. 15-188.
  • Richmond BG. 1993. Anatomy of the orang-utan, Pongo pygmaeus abelii. Unpublished work. State University of New York, Stony Brook.
  • Saban R. 1968. Musculature de la tête. In: Grassé PP, editor. Traité de Zoologie, XVI: 3 (Mammifères). Paris: Masson et Cie. p. 229-472.
  • Sakka M. 1973. Anatomie comparée de l’écaille de l'occipital (squama occipitalis P.N.A.) et des muscles de la nuque chez l'homme et les pongidés, II Partie, Myologie. Mammalia 37:126–180.
  • Sandifort G. 1840. Ontleedkundige beschouwing van een′ volwassen Orang-oetan (Simia satyrus, Linn.) van het mannelijk geslacht. Verhandelingen over de Natuurlijke geschiedenis der Nederlandische overzeesche bezittingen, door de leden der Natuurkundige commissie in Indië en andere. Schrijvers (Zoologie) 3:29–56.
  • Shoshani J, Groves CP, Simons EL, Gunnell F. 1996. Primate phylogeny: morphological vs molecular results. Mol Phylogenet Evol 5:102-154.
  • Sommer A. 1907. Das Muskelsystem des Gorilla. Jena Z Naturwiss 42:181-308.
  • Sonntag CF. 1923. On the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the chimpanzee. Proc Zool Soc Lond 23:323-429.
  • Sonntag CF. 1924a. On the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the orang-outan. Proc Zool Soc Lond 24:349-450.
  • Sonntag CF. 1924b. The morphology and evolution of the apes and man. London: John Bale Sons and Danielsson, Ltd.
  • Sperino G. 1897. Anatomia del cimpanzè (Anthropopithecus Troglodytes). Torino: Unione Tipografica.
  • Starck D. 1973. The skull of the fetal chimpanzee. In GH Bourne (ed.): The Chimpanzee, Vol. 6. Basel: Karger, pp. 1-33.
  • Starck D, Schneider R. 1960. Respirationsorgane. In Primatologia III/2 (ed. Hofer H, Schultz AH, Starck D). S. Karger, Basel, pp. 423-587.
  • Strzalko J, Malinowski A. 1972. The muscles of mastication and cranial proportions in primates. Folia Morphol 31:207-213.
  • Swindler DR, Wood CD. 1973. An atlas of primate gross anatomy: baboon, chimpanzee and men. Seattle, University of Washington Press.
  • Terminologia Anatomica. 1998. Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology. Stuttgard: Georg Thieme.
  • Thomson A. 1915. On the presence of genial tubercles on the mandible of man, and their suggested association with the faculty of speech. J Anat Physiol 50:43-74.
  • Toldt C. 1905. Der Winkelforsatz des Unterkiefers beim Menschen und bei den Saugetieren und die Beziehungen der Kaumuskeln zu demselben II Teil. Sitz Kaiserl Akad Wiss Wien Mathem-naturw Klasse Bd 114:315-476.
  • Toldt C. 1907. Der vordere Bauch des M. Digastricus mand. und seine Variationen beim Menschen. Sitz Akad Wiss Wien 116:1-373.
  • Toldt C. 1908. Der vordere Bauch des M. digastricus mandibulae und seine Varietaten beim Menschen, II. Sitz Akad Wiss Wien 117:229-231.
  • Tyson E. 1699. Orang-Outang sive Homo sylvestris, or the anatomy of a pygmie compared to that of a monkey, an ape and a man. T. Bennet: London.
  • Yoshikawa T. 1961. The lamination of the m. masseter of the crab-eating monkey, orang-utan and gorilla. Primates 3:81.
  • Vrolik W. 1841. Recherches d' anatornie comparé, sur le chimpanzé. Johannes Miller, Amsterdam.
  • Wall CE, Larson SG, Stern JT. 1994. EMG of the digastric muscle in gibbon and orangutan: functional consequences of the loss of the anterior digastric in orangutans. Am J Phys Anthropol 94: 549-567.
  • Weidenreich YF. 1951. The morphology of Solo man, 3. Anthropo1 Pap Am Mus Nat hist 43:205-290.
  • Wilder B. 1862. Contributions to the comparative myology of the chimpanzee. Boston J Nat Hist 6:352-384.
  • Winkler LA. 1991. Morphology and variability of masticatory structures in the orangutan. Int J Primat 12:45-65.




References for Pectoral and Upper Limb Muscular Anatomy


  • Abramowitz I.1955. On the existence of a palmar interosseous muscle in the thumb with particular reference to the Bantle-speaking Negro South African. J Sci 51:270-276.
  • Aiello L, Dean C. 1990. An introduction to human evolutionary anatomy. San Diego: Academic Press.
  • Anderton JC. 1988. Anomalies and atavisms in appendicular myology. In: Schwartz JH (ed.), Orang-utan Biology, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 331-345.
  • Andrews P, Groves CP. 1976. Gibbons and brachiation. In: Gibbon and Siamang, Vol. 4, D.M. Rumbaugh(ed.), pp. 167-218 Karger, Basel).
  • Appleton AB. 1929. On the morphology of the cervico-costo-humeralis muscle of Gruber. J Anat 63: 437-446.
  • Appleton AB, Ghey PHR. 1929. An example of the cervico-costo-humeral muscle of Gruber. J Anat 63: 434-436.
  • Ashton EH & Oxnard CE. 1963. The musculature of the primate shoulder. Trans Zoo1 Soc Lond 29:553-650.
  • Ashton EH & Oxnard CE. 1964. Functional adaptations of the primate shoulder girdle. Proc Zoo1 Soc Lond 142:49-66.
  • Aziz MA. 1980. Anatomical defects in a case of trisomy 13 with a D/D translocation. Teratology 22:217-227.
  • Aziz MA. 1981. Possible "atavistic" structures in human aneuploids. Am J Phys Anthropol 54:347-53.
  • Aziz MA, Dunlap SS. 1986. The human extensor digitorum profundus muscle with comments on the evolution of the primate hand. Primates 27:293-319.
  • Baba MA. 1954. The accessory tendon of the abductor pollicis longus muscle. Anat Rec 119:541-547.
  • Barash BA, Freedman L, Opitz JM. 1970. Anatomical studies in the 18-trisomy syndrome. Birth Defects 6:3-15.
  • Barnard WS. 1875. Observations on the membral musculation of Simia satyrus (Orang) and the comparative myology of man and the apes. Proc Amer Assoc Adv Sci.24:112-144.
  • Beddard FE. 1893. Contributions to the anatomy of the anthropoid apes. Trans Zool Soc Lond 13:177-218.
  • Bischoff TLW. 1870. Beitrage zur Anatomie des Hylobates leuciscus and zueiner vergleichenden Anatomie der Muskeln der Affen und des Menschen. Abh Bayer Akad Wiss Miinchen Math Phys Kl 10:197-297.
  • Bischoff TLW. 1880. Beitrage zur Anatomie des Gorilla. Abh Bayer Akad Wiss Miinchen Math Phys Kl 13:1-48.
  • Bojsen-Møller F. 1978. Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle and the evolution of the first intermetacarpal ligament. Am J Phys Anthropol 48:177-184.
  • Bolk L. 1902. Beiträge zur Affenanatomie, III, Der Plexus cervico-brachialis der Primaten. Petrus Campter 1:371-566.
  • Broca P. 1869. L'ordre des primates - parallele anatomique de I'homme et des singes. Bull Soc Anthropol Paris 4:228-401.
  • Brooks HSJ. 1886a. On the morphology of the intrinsic muscles of the little finger, with some observations on the ulnar head of the short flexor of the thumb. J Anat Physiol 20:644-661.
  • Brooks HSJ. 1886b. Variations in the nerve supply of the flexor brevis pollicis muscle. J Anat Physiol 20:641–644.
  • Brooks HSJ. 1887. On the short muscles of the pollex and hallux of the anthropoid apes, with special reference to the opponens hallucis. J Anat Physiol 22:78-95.
  • Carlson KJ. 2006. Muscle architecture of the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): perspectives for investigating chimpanzee behavior. Primates 47:218-229.
  • Celik S, Bilge O, Pinar Y, Govsa F. 2008. The anatomical variations of the extensor tendons to the dorsum of the hand. Clinical Anatomy 21:652-659.
  • Champneys F. 1871. The muscles and nerves of a Chimpanzee (Troglodytes Niger) and a Cynocephalus Anubis. J Anat Physiol 6:176-211.
  • Chapman HC. 1878. On the Structure of the Gorilla. Proc Acad Nat Sci Philad 30:385-394.
  • Chapman HC. 1879. On the structure of the chimpanzee. Proc Acad Nat Sci Philad 31:52-63.
  • Chapman HC. 1880. On the structure of the orang outang. Proc Acad Nat Sci Philad 32:160-175.
  • Chapman HC. 1900. Observations upon the anatomy of Hylobates leuciscus and Chiromys Madagascariensis. Proc Acad Nat Sci Phila 52:414-423
  • Church WS. 1861-1862. On the myology of the orang utang (Simia morio). Natl Hist Rev 1:510-516; 2:82-94.
  • Chylewski W. 1926. Glowa lokciowa m. nawrotnego oblego (m. pronator teres) w szerega naczelynych. C R Soc Sci Varsowie, Cl. 3, 19:367-375.
  • Cihak R. 1972. Ontogenesis of the skeleton and intrinsic muscles of the human hand and foot. Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol 46:1–194.
  • Cunningham DJ. 1887. The flexor brevis pollicis and the flexor brevis hallucis in man. Anat Anz 2:186-192.
  • Curry B, Alleandale MI, Kuz J, Rapids G. 2000. A new variation of abductor digiti minimi accessorius. J Hand Surg 25:585-587.
  • Day MH, Napier J. 1961. The two heads of the flexor pollicis brevis. J Anat 95:123-130.
  • Day MH, Napier J. 1963. The functional significance of the deep head of flexor pollicis brevis in primates. Folia Primatol 1:122–134.
  • Deniker J. 1885. Recherches anatomiques et embryologiques sur les singes anthropoïdes - foetus de gorille et de gibbon. Arch Zool Exp Gén 3, suppl. 3:1–265.
  • Diogo R, Lonergan N, Abdala V, Wood BA. In press. From fish to modern humans: comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pectoral and forelimb muscles. J Anat.
  • Donisch E. 1973. A comparative study of the back muscles of gibbon and man. In DM Rumbaugh (ed.): Gibbon and Siamang, Vol. 2. Basel: Karger, pp. 99-120.
  • Duckworth WLH. 1898. Note on a foetus of Gorilla savagei. J Anat Physiol 33:82-90.
  • Duckworth WLH. 1904. Studies from the Anthropological Laboratory, the Anatomy School, Cambridge. London, C. J. Clay & Sons.
  • Duckworth WLH. 1915. Morphology and anthropology (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Dunlap SS, Thorington RW, Aziz MA. 1985. Forelimb anatomy of New World monkeys: myology and the interpretation of primitive anthropoid models. Am J Phys Anthropol 68:499-517.
  • Duvernoy M. 1855-1856. Des caracteres anatomiques de grands singes pseudoanthropomorphes anthropomorphes. Arch Mus Natl Hist Nat Paris 8:1-248
  • Dwight T. 1895. Notes on the dissection and brain of the chimpanzee ‘Gumbo’. Mem Boston Soc Nat Hist 5:31-51.
  • Dylevsky I. 1967. Contribution to the ontogenesis of the flexor digitorum superficialis and the flexor digitorum profundus in man. Folia Morphol (Praha) 15: 330-335.
  • Eisler P. 1890. Das Gefäss- und periphere Nervensystem des Gorilla. Tausch and Grosse, Talle.
  • Eladoumikdachi F, Valkov PL, Thomas J, Netscher DT. 2002a. Anatomy of the intrinsic hand muscles revisited: part I - interossei. Plast Reconstr Surg 110:1211-1224.
  • Eladoumikdachi F, Valkov PL, Thomas J, Netscher DT. 2002b. Anatomy of the intrinsic hand muscles revisited: part II - lumbricals. Plast Reconstr Surg 110:1225-1231.
  • Fick R. 1895a. Vergleichend-anatomische Studien an einem erwachsenen Orang-utang. Arch Anat Physiol Anat Abt 1895:1-100.
  • Fick R. 1895b. Beobachtungen an einem zweiten envachsenen Orang-Utang und einem Schimpansen. Arch Anat Physiol Anat Abt 1895:289-318.
  • Fick R. 1925. Beobachtungen an den muskeln einger schimpansen. Zeitschr Anat und Entwick 76:117-141.
  • Fitzwilliams DCL 1910. The short muscles of the hand of the agile gibbon (Hylobatis agilis), with comments on the morphological position and function of the short muscles of the hand of man. Proc R Soc Edinb 30:201-218.
  • Fleagle JG, Stern JT, Jungers WL, Susman RL, Vangor AK, Wells JP. 1981. Climbing: A biomechanical link with brachiation and bipedalism. Symp zool Soc Lond 48:359-373.
  • Forster A. 1917. Die mm. contrahentes und interossei manus in der Säugetierreihe und beim Menschen. Arch Anat Physiol Anat Abt 1916:101-378.
  • Forster A. 1933. Contribution à l'evolution du pouce chez Hylobates leuciscus. Arch Anat Histiol Embryol 16:215-230.
  • Frazer JE. 1908. The derivation of the human hypothenar muscles. J Anat Physiol 42:326-334.
  • Galton JC. 1874. On the Epitrochleo-Anconeus or Anconeus Sextus (Gruber). J Anat Physiol 9:168-175.
  • George RM. 1977. The limb musculature of the Tupaiidae. Primates 18:1–34.
  • Gibbs S. 1999. Comparative soft tissue morphology of the extant Hominoidea, including Man. Unpublished PhD Thesis, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool.
  • Gibbs S, Collard M, Wood BA. 2002. Soft-tissue anatomy of the extant hominoids: a review and phylogenetic analysis. J Anat 200:3-49.
  • Glidden EM, De Garis CF. 1936. Arteries of the chimpanzee (Pan spec. ?), I, the aortic arch, II, arteries of the upper extremety, III, the descending aorta, IV, arteries of the lower extremety. Am J Anat 58: 501-527
  • Gräfenberg E. 1906. Die enntwicklung der Knochen, Muskeln und Nerven der Hand und der für die Bewegungen der Hand bestimmten Muskeln des Unterarmes. Anat H 30:7-154.
  • Gratiolet LP, Alix PHE. 1866. Recherches sur l'anatomie du Troglodytes aubryi. Nouv Arch Mus Hist Nat Paris 2:1-264.
  • Greene EC. 1935. Anatomy of the Rat. New York: Hafner Publishing Co.
  • Grönroos H. 1903. Die musculi biceps brachii und latissimocondyloideus bei der affengattung Hylobates im vergleich mit den ensprechenden gebilden der anthropoiden und des menschen. Abh Kön Preuss Akad Wiss Berlin 1903:1-102.
  • Groves CP. 1986. Systematics of the great apes. In Comparative Primate Biology: Systematics, Evolution and Anatomy, Vol. 1 (D.R Swindler, J Erwin, eds.), A.R. Liss, New York, pp. 187-217.
  • Groves CP. 1995. Revised character descriptions for Hominoidea. Typescript, 9 pp.
  • Gruber W. 1877. Ueber die drei hauptvarianten des m. extensor digiti quinti proprius manus des menschen. Beobach Mensch Vergl Anat 3:1-61.
  • Gruber W. 1879. Monographie fiber den m. extensor digiti indicis proprius and seiner variataten bei dem menschen and bei den Saugethieren. Beobach Mensch Vergl Anat 5:1-77.
  • Gusmão LCB, Feijó MJF, Sousa-Rodrigues CFS. 2005. Morphological aspects of abductor digiti minimi muscle in the hand. Int J Morphol 23:373-376.
  • Haines RW. 1950. The flexor muscles of the forearm and hand in lizards and mammals. J Anat 84:13-29.
  • Haines RW. 1958. Arboreal or terrestrial ancestry of placental mammals. Q Rev Biol 33:1-23.
  • Hall BK. 1984. Developmental mechanisms underlying the formation of atavisms. Biol Rev 59:89-124.
  • Haninec P, Tomás R, Kaiser R Cihak R. 2009. Development and clinical significance of the musculus dorsoepitrochlearis in men. Clin Anat 22:481-488.
  • Hartmann R. 1886. Anthropoid apes. London: Keegan.
  • Henkel-Kopleck A, Schmidt HM. 2000. Das Ligamentum metacarpale pollicis. Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir 32:1-8.
  • Hepburn D. 1892. The comparative anatomy of the muscles and nerves of the superior and inferior extremities of the anthropoid apes: I - Myology of the superior extremity. J Anat Physiol 26: 149-186.
  • Hepburn D. 1896. A revised description of the dorsal interosseous muscles of the human hand, with suggestions for a new nomenclature of the palmar interosseous muscles and some observations on the corresponding muscles in the anthropoid apes. Trans R Soc Edin 38: 557-565
  • Hofër 1892. Vergleichend-anatomische Studien uber die Nerven des Armes und der Hand bei den Affen und dem Menschen. Munchener Med Abhandl 30:1-106.
  • Howell AB. 1936a. Phylogeny of the distal musculature of the pectoral appendage. J Morphol 60:287-315.
  • Howell AB. 1936b. The phylogenetic arrangement of the muscular system. Anat Rec 66:295-316.
  • Howell AB. 1937b. Morphogenesis of the shoulder architecture, Part IV - Therian Mammalia. Q Rev Biol 12:440-463.
  • Howell AB, Straus WL. 1932. The brachial flexor muscles in primates. Proc US Natl Mus 80:1-31.
  • Humphry G. 1867. On some points in the anatomy of the chimpanzee. J Anat Physiol 1:254-268.
  • Huntington GS. 1903. Present problems of myological research and the significance and classification of muscular variations. Am J Anat 2:157-175.
  • Huntington GS. 1904. The derivation and significance of certain supernumerary muscles of the pectoral Region. J Anat Physiol 39:1-54.
  • Huxley TH. 1864. The structure and classification of the Mammalia. Med Times Gazette 1864: 398-468.
  • Huxley TH. 1871. The anatomy of vertebrated animals. London, J. & A. Churchill.
  • Jouffroy FK. 1962. La musculature des membres chez les lémuriens de Madagascar - étude descriptive et comparative. Mammalia 26:1-326.
  • Jouffroy FK. 1971. Musculature des membres. In: Grassé PP, editor. Traité de Zoologie, XVI: 3 (Mammifères). Paris: Masson et Cie. p. 1-475.
  • Jouffroy FK, Lessertisseur J. 1957. Particularités musculaires de l'avant-bras et de la main chez un chimpanzé, Pan troglodytes (Owen). Bull Mus nat Hist Nat, Ser 2, 29:121-126.
  • Jouffroy FK, Lessertisseur J. 1958. Notes sur la musculature de la main et du pied d'un orang-outan (Pongo pygmaeus Hoppius). Bull Mus nat Hist Nat Ser 2 30:111-122.
  • Jouffroy FK, Lessertisseur J. 1959. Reflexions sur les muscles contracteurs des doigts et des orteils (contrahentes digitorum) chez les primates. Ann Sci Nat Zool Ser 12 1:211-235.
  • Jouffroy FK, Lessertisseur J. 1960. Les spécialisations anatomiques de la main chez les singes à progression suspendue. Mammalia 24:93-151.
  • Jungers WL, Stern JT. 1980. Telemetered electromyography of forelimb muscle chains in gibbons (Hylobates lar). Science 208:617-619.
  • Jungers WL, Stern JT. 1981. Preliminary electromtographical analysis of brachiation in gibbon and spider monkey. Int J Primatol 2:19-33.
  • Jungers WL, Stern JT. 1984. Kinesiological aspects of brachiation in lar gibbons. In Preuschoft, H., Chiver D. J., Brockelman, W. Y., and Creel, N. (eds.), The Lesser Apes: Evolutionary and Behavioral Biology, 119-134. Edinburgh University Press: Edinburgh.
  • Kallner M. 1956. Die muskulatur und die funktion des schultergurtels und der vorderextremitat des orang-utans. Morph Jahrb 97:554-665.
  • Kanagasuntheram R. 1952-1954. Observations on the anatomy of the hoolock gibbon. Ceylon J Sci Sect G 5:11-64(1952) + 69-122(1954).
  • Kanaya K, Wada T, Isogai S, Murakami G, Ishii S. 2002. Variation in insertion of the abductor digiti minimi: an anatomic study. J Hand Surg 27:325-328.
  • Kaneff A. 1959. Über die evolution des m. abductor pollicis longus und m. extensor pollicis brevis. Mateil morphol Inst Bulg Akad Wiss 3:175-196.
  • Kaneff A. 1968. Zur differenzierung des m. abductor pollicis biventer beim Menschen. Gegenbaurs morphol Jahrb 112:289-303.
  • Kaneff A. 1969. Umbildung der dorsalen Daumenmuskeln beim Menschen. Verh Anat Ges 63:625-636.
  • Kaneff A. 1979. Évolution morphologique des musculi extensores digitorum et abductor pollicis longus chez l'Homme. I. Introduction, méthodologie, M. extensor digitorum. Gegenbaurs Morphol Jahrb 125:818-873.
  • Kaneff A. 1980a. Évolution morphologique des musculi extensores digitorum et abductor pollicis longus chez l'Homme. II. Évolution morphologique des m. extensor digiti minimi, abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis et extensor pollicis longus chez l'homme. Gegenbaurs Morphol Jahrb 126:594-630.
  • Kaneff A. 1980b. Évolution morphologique des musculi extensores digitorum et abductor pollicis longus chez l'Homme. III. Évolution morphologique du m. extensor indicis chez l'homme, conclusion générale sur l 'évolution morphologique des musculi extensores digitorum et abductor pollicis longus chez l'homme. Gegenbaurs Morphol Jahrb 126:774-815.
  • Kaneff A, Cihak R. 1970. Modifications in the musculus extensor digitorum lateralis in phylogenesis and in human ontogenesis. Acta Anat Basel 77:583-604.
  • Kawashima T, Yoshitomi S, Sasaki H. 2007. Nerve fiber tracing of the branches to the coracobrachialis in an adult male orangutan. Anat Histol Embryol 36:19-23.
  • Keith A 1891. Anatomical notes on Malay apes. J Strts Brit Roy Assoc Soc 23:77-94.
  • Keith A. 1894a. The myology of the Catarrhini: a study in evolution. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Alberdeen.
  • Keith A. 1894b. Notes on a theory to account for the various arrangements of the flexor profundus digitorum in the hand and foot of primates. J Anat Physiol 28:335-339.
  • Keith A. 1899. On the chimpanzees and their relationship to the gorilla. Proc Zool Soc Lond 1899:296-312.
  • Kikuchi Y. 2010. Comparative analysis of muscle architecture in primate arm and forearm. Anat Histol Embryol 39:93-106.
  • Kohlbrügge JHF. 1890-1892. Versuch einer Anatomie des Genus Hylobates. In: Weber M (ed.), Zoologische Ergebnisse Einer Reise in Niederländisch Ost-Indien. Leiden: Verlag von EJ Brill; pp. 211–354 (Vol. 1), 138-208 (Vol. 2).
  • Kohlbrügge JHF. 1897. Muskeln und Periphere Nerven der Primaten, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung ihrer Anomalien. Verh K Akad Wet Amsterdam Sec 2 5:1–246.
  • Koizumi M, Sakai T. 1995. The nerve supply to coracobrachialis in apes. J Anat 186:395–403.
  • Lander KF. 1918. The pectoralis minor: a morphological study. J Anat 52:292–318.
  • Landsmeer JM. 1984. The human hand in phylogenetic perspective. Bull Hosp Jt Dis Orthop Inst 44:276-287.
  • Landsmeer JM. 1986. A comparison of fingers and hand in Varanus, opossum and primates. Acta Morphol Neerl Scand 24:193-221.
  • Landsmeer JM. 1987. The hand and hominisation. Acta Morphol Neerl Scand. 25:83-93.
  • Langer C. 1879. Die Muskeln der Extremitäten des Orang als Grundlage einer vergleichend - myologischen Untersuchung. Sitzugsber Math Nat Cl Kais Akad Wiss W ien 79:177-222.
  • Larson SG. 1993. Functional morphology of the shoulder in primates. In Postcranial Adaptation in Nonhuman Primates (Gebo DL, ed.), Northern Illinois Univ. Press, DeKalb, pp. 45-69.
  • Larson SG, Stern JT. 1986. EMG of scapulohumeral muscles in the chimpanzee during reaching and 'arboreal' locomotion. Am J Anat 176:171-190.
  • Larson SG, Stern JT, Jungers WL. 1991. EMG of serratus anterior and trapezius in the chimpanzee: scapular rotators revisited. Am J Phys Anthropol 85:71-84.
  • Leche W. 1900. Muskulatur. Bronn’s Klassen und Ordnungen des Thierreichs 6 (5, Säugethiere, Mammalia):649-919.
  • Le Double F. 1897. Traité des variations du systéme musculaire de l'homme et de leur signification au point de vue de l'anthropologie zoologique, I et II. Librairie C. Reinwald, Paris.
  • Le Gros Clark WE. 1924. The myology of the tree-shrew (Tupaia minor). Proc Zool Soc Lond 1924:461-497.
  • Le Gros Clark WE. 1926. On the anatomy of the pen-tailed tree-shrew (Ptilocercus lowii). Proc Zool Soc Lond 1926:1178-1309.
  • Lessertisseur J. 1958. Doit-on distinguer deux plans de muscles interosseux à la main et au pied des primates? Ann Sci nat Zool Biol Anim 20:77-103.
  • Lewis WH. 1910. The development of the muscular system. In: Manual of Human Embryology, Vol. 1 (Keibel F, Mall FP, Eds.). Lippin-cott, Philadelphia, pp. 454-522.
  • Lewis OJ. 1965. The evolution of the Mm. interossei in the primate hand. Anat Rec 1965 153:275-287.
  • Lewis OJ. 1989. Functional morphology of the evolving hand and foot. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Lindburg RM, Comstock BE. 1979. Anomalous tendon slips from the flexor pollicis longus to the digitorum profundus. J Hand Surg 4:79–83.
  • Lorenz R. 1974. On the thumb of the Hylobatidae. In Gibbon and Siamang ed. D. M. Rumbaugh, vol. 3, pp. 157-175. Basel: S. Karger.
  • Loth E. 1912. Beiträge zur Anthropologie der Negerweichteile (Muskelsystem). Stud Forsch Menschen-u Völkerkunde Stuttgart 9:1–254.
  • Loth E. 1931. Anthropologie des parties molles (muscles, intestins, vaisseaux, nerfs peripheriques). Paris: Mianowski-Masson et Cie.
  • Macalister A. 1871. On some points in the myology of the chimpanzee and others of the primates. Ann Mag Nat Hist 7:341-351.
  • Macalister A. 1872. On muscular variations in human anatomy. Trans R Irish Acad 25:1-130.
  • Macalister A. 1873. The muscular anatomy of the gorilla. Proc Royal Irish Acad, Ser 2, 1:501-506.
  • Macalister A. 1875. Additional observations on muscular anomalies in human anatomy (third series), with a catalogue of the principal muscular variations hitherto published. Trans. Roy Irish Acad Sci 25: 1–134.
  • MacDowell EC. 1910. Notes on the myology of Anthropopithecus niger and Papio-thoth ibeanus. Am J Anat 10:431-460.
  • Mangini U. 1960. Flexor pollicis longus muscle: its morphology and clinical significance. J Bone Jt Surg 42A:467-559.
  • Mardel S, Underwood M. 1991. Adductor pollicis - the missing interosseous. Surg Radiol Anat 13:49-52.
  • Martini FH, Timmons MJ, Tallitsch RB (2003). Human Anatomy (4th Ed.). Upper Sadle River, Prentice Hall.
  • Marzke NW, Wullstein KL, Viegas SF. 1992. Evolution of the power ("squeeze") grip and its morphological correlates in hominids. Am J Phys Anthropol 89:283-298.
  • Marzke MW, Toth N, Schick K, Reece S, Steinberg B, Hunt K, Linscheid RL, An KN. 1998. EMG study of hand muscle recruitment during hard hammer percussion manufacture of oldowan tools. Am J Phys Anthropol 105:315-332.
  • Marzke MW, Marzke RF, Linscheid RL, Smutz P, Steinberg B, Reece S, An KN. 1999. Chimpanzee thumb muscle cross sections, moment arms and potential torques, and comparisons with humans. Am J Physic Anthropol 110:163-178.
  • Mayer JC. 1956. Zur Anatomie des Orang-utang und des Schimpansen. Arch Naturgesch 22:279-304.
  • McMurrich JP. 1903a. The phylogeny of the forearm flexors. Amer J Anat 2:177-209.
  • McMurrich JP. 1903b. The phylogeny of the palmar musculature. Amer J Anat 2:463-500.
  • Michaëlis P. 1903. Beitrage zur vergleichenden Myologie des Cynocephalus babuin, Simia satyrus, Troglodytes niger. Arch Anat Phys Anat Abt 1:205-256.
  • Michilsens F, Vereecke EE, D’Août K, Aerts P. 2009. Functional anatomy of the gibbon forelimb: adaptations to a brachiating lifestyle. J Anat 215:335-354.
  • Michilsens F, Vereecke EE, D’Août K, Aerts P. 2010. Muscle moment arms and function of the siamang forelimb during brachiation. J Anat 217:521-535.
  • Miller RA 1932. Evolution of the pectoral girdle and forelimb in the primates. Amer J Phys Anthropol 17:1-56.
  • Miller RA. 1934. Comparative studies upon the morphology and distribution of the brachial plexus. Am J Anat 54:143–175.
  • Miller RA. 1952.The musculature of Pan paniscus. Am J Anat 91:182-232.
  • Mori M. 1964. Statistics on the musculature of the Japanese. Okajimas Fol Anat Jap 40:195-300.
  • After Thesis --> Morrison, P. E. and Hill, R. V. (2011), And then there were four: Anatomical observations on the pollical palmar interosseous muscle in humans. Clinical Anatomy.
  • Müller E. 1905. Beiträge zur morphologie des Gefässsystems, II, die armarterien der Säugetiere. Anat Hefte 27: 71-242.
  • Murata K, Tamai M, Gupta A. 2004. Anatomic study of variations of hypothenar muscles and arborization patterns of the ulnar nerve in the hand. J Hand Surg 29:500-509.
  • Netter FH. 2006. Atlas of human anatomy (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.
  • Ogihara N, Kunai T, Nakatsukasa M. 2005. Muscle dimensions in the chimpanzee hand. Primates 46:275-280.
  • Oishi M, Ogihara N, Endo H, Asari M. 2008. Muscle architecture of the upper limb in the orangutan. Primates 49:204-209
  • Oishi M, Ogihara N, Endo H, Ichihara N, Asari M. 2009. Dimensions of forelimb muscles in orangutans and chimpanzees. J Anat 215:373-382.
  • Owen R. 1830-1831. On the anatomy of the orangutan (Simia satyrus, L.). Proc Zool Soc Lond 1:4-5, 9-10, 28-29, 66-72.
  • Owen R. 1843. Notes of the dissection of a female orang-utan (Simia satyrus, Linn.). Proc Zool Soc Lond 11:123–124.
  • Owen R 1846. Notes on the dissection of a female chimpanzee. Proc Zool Soc Lond 14:2–3.
  • Owen R. 1868. The Anatomy of Vertebrates, Vol. 3: Mammals. Longmans, Green & Co., London.
  • Parsons FG. 1898b. The muscles of mammals, with special relation to human myology: a course of lectures delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons of England - lecture II, the muscles of the shoulder and forelimb. J Anat Physiol 32:721–752.
  • Payne RC. 2001. Musculoskeletal adaptations for climbing in hominoids and their role as exaptations for the acquisition of bipedalism. Unpublished PhD thesis, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool.
  • Pira A. 1913. Beiträge zür Anatomie des Gorilla, I, Das Extremitätenmuskelsystem. Morphol Jahrb 47:309-354.
  • Plattner F. 1923. Über die ventral-innervierte und die genuine. rückenmuskulatur bei drei anthropomorphen (Gorilla gina, Hylobates und Troglodytes niger). Morphol Jb:241-280.
  • Potau JM, Bardina X, Ciurana N, Camprubi D, Pastor JF, De Paz F, Barbosa M. 2009. Quantitative analysis of the deltoid and rotator cuff muscles in humans and great Apes. Int J Primatol 30: 697-708.
  • Preuschoft H. 1963. Muskelgewichte bei gorilla, orangutan und mensch. Anthrop Anz 26:308-317.
  • Preuschoft H. 1965. Muskeln and gelenk der vorderextremitat des gorillas. Morph Jb 107:99-183.
  • Preuschoft H. 1973. Functional anatomy of the upper extremity. In GH Bourne (ed.): The Chimpanzee, Vol. 6. Basel: Karger, pp. 34-120.
  • Primrose A. 1899. The anatomy of the orang-outang (Simia satyrus), an account of some of its external characteristics, and the myology of the extremities. Trans Royal Can Inst 6:507-594.
  • Primrose A. 1900. The anatomy of the orang-outang. Univ Toronto Stud Anat Ser 1:1-94.
  • Prioton JB, Colin R, Baumel H. 1957. Muscles moteurs des doigts et leur innervation chez le chimpanzé. C R Assoc Anat XLIII:687-693.
  • Rai R, Ranade AV, Phabhu LV, Prakash, Rajanigandha V, Nayak SR. 2008. Unilateral Pectoralis minimus muscle - a case report. Int J Morphol 26:27-29.
  • Ribbing L, Hermansson K. 1912. Kleinere muskelstudien, I11, die distale extremitatenmuskulatur eines schimpansen. Lunds Universitets Arsskrift NF Afd 2 8:1-10.
  • Ronsse G. 1922. La signification de l'extenseur propre de l'index chez l'homme. Ann Bull Soc R Med Gand 1:227-237.
  • Rose MD. 1993. Functional anatomy of the elbow and forearm in primates. In Postcranial Adaptation in Nonhuman Primates (Gebo DL, ed.), pp 70-95. Northern Illinois University Press, DeKalb.
  • Ruge G. 1890-1891. Anatomisches über den Rumpf der Hylobatiden - ein Beitrag zur Bestimmung der Stellung dieses genus im System. In: Weber M (ed.), Zoologische Ergebnisse Einer Reise in Niederländisch Ost-Indien. Leiden: Verlag von EJ Brill; pp. 366-460 (Vol. 1).
  • Raven HC. 1950. Regional anatomy of the Gorilla. In: Gregory WK (ed.), The anatomy of the Gorilla. Columbia University Press, New York, p. 15-188.
  • Rauwerdink GP. 1993. Muscle fibre and tendon lengths in primate extremities. In Hands of Primates (eds. H. Preuschoft and D. J. Chivers), pp 207-223. New York: Springer-Verlag.
  • Richmond BG. 1993. Anatomy of the orang-utan, Pongo pygmaeus abelii. Unpublished work. State University of New York, Stony Brook.
  • Sandifort G. 1840. Ontleedkundige beschouwing van een′ volwassen Orang-oetan (Simia satyrus, Linn.) van het mannelijk geslacht. Verhandelingen over de Natuurlijke geschiedenis der Nederlandische overzeesche bezittingen, door de leden der Natuurkundige commissie in Indië en andere. Schrijvers (Zoologie) 3:29–56.
  • Sanudo JR, Mirapeix RM, Ferreira BA. 1993. A rare anomaly of abductor digiti minimi. J Anat 182:439-42.
  • Sarmiento EE. 1994. Terrestrial traits in the hands and feet of gorillas. Am Mus Novit 3091:1-56.
  • Schreiber HV. 1934. Zur morphologie der wrimatenhand - rontnenolonische untersuchungen an der handwuriel dei affen. Anat Anz 78:369-429.
  • Schreiber HV. 1936. Die extrembewegungen der schimpansenhand, 2, mitteilung zu - zur morphologie der primatehand. Morph Jahrb 77:22-60.
  • Schück AC. 1913a. Beiträge zur Myologie der Primaten, I - der m. lat. dorsi und der m. latissimo-tricipitalis. Morphol Jahrb 45:267-294.
  • Schück AC. 1913b. Beiträge zur Myologie der Primaten, II - 1 die gruppe sterno-cleido-mastoideus, trapezius, omo-cervicalis, 2 die gruppe levator scapulae, rhomboides, serratus anticus. Morphol Jahrb 46:355-418.
  • Schultz AH. 1936. Characters common to higher primates and characters specific for man. Q Rev Biol 11:259-283, 425-455.
  • Schultz AH. 1973. The skeleton of the Hylobatidae and other observations on their morphology. In DM Rumbaugh (ed.): Gibbon and Siamang, Vol. 2. Basel: Karger, pp. 1-54.
  • Shoshani J, Groves CP, Simons EL, Gunnell F. 1996. Primate phylogeny: morphological vs molecular results. Mol Phylogenet Evol 5:102-154.
  • Shrewsbury MM, Marzke MM, Linscheid RL, Reece SP. 2003. Comparative morphology of the pollical distal phalanx. Am J Phys Anthropol 121:30-47.
  • Shrivastava RK. Anatomie comparée du muscle deltoide et son innervation dans la série des mammifères. Unpublished Phd thesis, Université de Paris. 1978.
  • Smith EB. 1896. Some points in the anatomy of the dorsum of the hand, with special reference to the morphology of the extensor brevis digitorum manus. J Anat Physiol 31:45-58.
  • Sommer A. 1907. Das Muskelsystem des Gorilla. Jena Z Naturwiss 42:181-308.
  • Sonntag CF. 1923. On the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the chimpanzee. Proc Zool Soc Lond 23:323-429.
  • Sonntag CF. 1924a. On the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the orang-outan. Proc Zool Soc Lond 24:349-450.
  • Sonntag CF. 1924b. The morphology and evolution of the apes and man. London: John Bale Sons and Danielsson, Ltd.
  • Sperino G. 1897. Anatomia del cimpanzè (Anthropopithecus Troglodytes). Torino: Unione Tipografica.
  • Stern JT, Larson SG. 2001. Telemetered electromyography of the supinators and pronators of the forearm in gibbons and chimpanzees: implications for the fundamental positional adaptation of hominoids. Am J Phys Anthopol 115:253-268.
  • Stern JT, Wells JP, Jungers WL, Vangor AK, Fleagle JG. 1980a. An electromyographic study of the pectoralis major in atelines and Hylobates with special reference to the evolution of a pars clavicularis. Am J Phys Anthropol 52:13-25.
  • Stern JT, Wells JP, Jungers WL, Vangor AK. 1980b. An electromyographic study of serratus anterior in atelines and Alouatta: implications for hominoid evolution. Am J Phys Anthropol 52 323-334.
  • Stewart TD. 1936. The musculature of the anthropoids, I, neck and trunk. Am J Phys Anthropol 21:141-204.
  • Stout KL. 2000. Grip types and associated morphology of the hylobatid thumb and index finger. Unpublished MA thesis, Arizona State University.
  • Straus WL. 1941a. The phylogeny of the human forearm extensors. Hum Biol 13:23-50.
  • Straus WL. 1941b. The phylogeny of the human forearm extensors (concluded). Hum Biol 13:203-238.
  • Straus WL. 1942a. The homologies of the forearm flexors: urodeles, lizards, mammals. Am J Anat 70:281–316.
  • Straus WL. 1942b. Rudimentary digits in primates. Q Rev Biol 17:228-243.
  • Sullivan WE, Osgood CW. 1927.The musculature of the superior extremity of the orang-utan, Simia satyrus. Anat Rec 35:193-239.
  • Susman RL 1994. Fossil evidence for early hominid tool sse. Science 265:1570-1573
  • Susman RL. 1998. Hand function and tool behavior in early hominids. J Hum Evol 35:23-46.
  • Susman RL, Stern JT 1979. Telemetered electromyography of flexor digitorum profundus and flexor digitorum superficialis in Pan troglodytes and implications for interpretation of the O. H. 7 hand. Am J Phys Anthropol 50:565-574.
  • Susman RL, Stern JT 1980. EMG of the interosseous and lumbrical muscles in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) hand during locomotion. Am J Anat 157:389-97.
  • Susman RL, Jungers WL, Stern JT. 1982 The functional morphology of the accessory interosseous muscle in the gibbon hand: determination of locomotor and manipulatory compromises. J Anat 134:111-120.
  • Susman RL, Nyati L, Jassal MS. 1999. Observations on the pollical palmar interosseus muscle (of Henle). Anat Rec 254:159-165.
  • Sutton JB. 1883. On some points in the anatomy of the chimpanzee (Anthropopithecus troglodytes). J Anat Physiol 18:66-85.
  • Symington J. 1889. Observations on the myology of the gorilla and chimpanzee. Rep Brit Assoc Adv Sci 59:629-630.
  • Swartz SM. 1900. Curvature of the forelimb bones of anthropoid primates: overall allometric patterns and specializations in suspensory species. Am J Phys Anthropol 83:477-498.
  • Swindler DR, Wood CD. 1973. An atlas of primate gross anatomy: baboon, chimpanzee and men. Seattle, University of Washington Press.
  • Terminologia Anatomica. 1998. Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology. Stuttgard: Georg Thieme.
  • Testut L. 1883. Le long fléchisseur propre du pouce chez l'homme et les singes. Bull Soc Zool Fr 8:164-185.
  • Testut L. 1884. Les anomalies musculaires chez l’homme expliquèes par l’anatomie comparée et leur importance en anthropologie. Paris: Masson.
  • Thorpe SKS, Crompton RH, Günther MM, Ker RF, Alexander RM. 1999. Dimensions and moment arms of the hind- and forelimb muscles of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Am J Phys Anthropol 110:179-199.
  • Tocheri MW, Orr CM, Jacofsky MC, Marzke MW. 2008. The evolutionary history of the hominin hand since the last common ancestor of Pan and Homo. J Anat 212:544-562.
  • Traill TS. 1821. Observations on the anatomy of the orangutan. Mem Weiner Nat Hist Soc Edinburgh 3:1-49.
  • Tschachmachtschjan H. 1912. Über die Pectoral- und Abdominal- musculatur und über die Scalenus-Gruppe bei Primataten. Morph Jb 44:297–370.
  • Tuttle RH. 1967. Knuckle-walking and the evolution of hominoid hands. Am J Phys Anthrop 26:171-206.
  • Tuttle RH. 1969. Quantitative and functional studies on the hands of the Anthropoidea, I, the Hominoidea. J Morphol 128:309-363.
  • Tuttle RH. 1970. Postural, propulsive and prehensile capabilities in the cheiridia of chimpanzees and other great apes. In GH Bourne (ed.): The Chimpanzee, Vol. 2. Basel: Karger, pp. 167-253.
  • Tuttle RH. 1972a. Relative mass of cheiridial muscles in catarrhine primates. In The Functional and Evolutionary Biology of Primates (ed. Tuttle RH), pp. 262-291.
  • Tutlle RH. 1972b. Functional and evolutionary biology of hylobatid hands and feet. In Gibbon and Siamang. ed. D. M. Rumbaugh, vol. 1, pp. 136-206. Basel: S. Karger.
  • Tuttle RH, Basmajian JV. 1974a. Electromyography of the brachial muscles in Pan gorilla and hominoid evolution. Am J Phys Anthropol 41:71-90
  • Tuttle RH, Basmajian JV. 1974b. Electromyography of forearm musculature in Gorilla and problems related to knuckle-walking. In: Jenkins FA, ed.: Primate Locomotion. New York: Academic Press. pp. 293-347.
  • Tuttle RH, Basmajian JV. 1976. Electromyography of pongid shoulder muscles and hominoid evolution I - retractors of the humerus and rotators of the scapula. Yearbook Phys Anthropol 20:491-497.
  • Tuttle RH, Basmajian JV. 1978a. Electromyography of pongid shoulder muscles II - deltoid, rhomboid and "rotator cuff". Am J Phys Anthropol 49:47-56.
  • Tuttle RH, Basmajian JV. 1978b. Electromyography of pongid shoulder muscles III - quadrupedal positional behavior. Am J Phys Anthropol 49:57-70.
  • Tuttle RH, Cortright G. 1988. Positional behavior, adaptive complexes, and evolution. In: Schwartz, J.H. (Ed.), Orang-Utan Biology. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 311-330.
  • Tuttle RH, Velte MJ, Basmajian JV. 1983. Electromyography of brachial muscles in Pan troglodytes and Pongo pygmaeus. Am J Phys Anthropol 198361:75-83.
  • Tuttle RH, Hollowed JR, Basmajian JV. 1992. Electromyography of pronators and supinators in great apes. Am J Phys Anthropol 87:215-26.
  • Tyson E. 1699. Orang-Outang sive Homo sylvestris, or the anatomy of a pygmie compared to that of a monkey, an ape and a man. T. Bennet: London.
  • Uzmansel D, Kurtolu Z, Kara A, Ozturk NC 2010. Frequency, anatomical properties and innervation of axillary arch and its relation to the brachial plexus in human fetuses.Surg Radiol Anat. 32:859-63.
  • Van der Broek AJP. 1909. Ein doppelseitiger M.sternalis und ein M.pectoralis quartus bei Hylobates syndactylus. Anat Anz 35:591-596.
  • Van Horn RN. 1972. Structural adaptations to climbing in the gibbon hand. Am Anthropol New Ser 74:326-334.
  • Verhulst J. 2003. Developmental dynamics in humans and other primates: discovering evolutionary principles through comparative morphology. Adonis Press: Ghent.
  • Vrolik W. 1841. Recherches d' anatornie comparé, sur le chimpanzé. Johannes Miller, Amsterdam.
  • Whitehead PF. 1993. Aspects of the anthropoid wrist and hand. In Postcranial Adaptation in Nonhuman Primates (Gebo DL, ed.), pp 96-120. Northern Illinois University Press, DeKalb.
  • Wilder B. 1862. Contributions to the comparative myology of the chimpanzee. Boston J Nat Hist 6:352-384.
  • Wilkinson JL. 1953. The insertions of the flexores pollicis longus et digitorum profundus. J Anat 87:75-88.
  • Wood J. 1864. On some varieties in human myology. Proc Royal Soc Lond 13:299-303.
  • Wood J. 1865. Additional varieties in human myology. Proc Royal Soc Lond 14:379-393.
  • Wood J. 1866. Variations in human myology observed during the Winter Session of 1865-6 at King's College, London. Proc Royal Soc 15:229-244.
  • Wood J. 1867a. On human muscular variations and their relation to comparative anatomy. J Anat Physiol 1867:44-59.
  • Wood J. 1867b. Variations in human myology observed during the Winter Session of 1866-7 at King's College London. Proc Royal Soc 15:518-545.
  • Wood J. 1868. Variations in human myology observed during the winter session of 1867-68 at King's College, London. Proc Royal Soc Lond 16:483-525.
  • Wood J. 1870. On a group of varieties of the muscles of the human neck, shoulder, and chest, with their transitional forms and homologies in the Mammalia. Philos Trans R Soc Lond 160:83-116.
  • Wood Jones F. 1920. The principles of anatomy as seen in the hand. London: J. & A Churchill.
  • Wyman J. 1855. An account of the dissecti
  • on of a black chimpanzee. Proc Boston Soc Nat Hist 5:270-275.
  • Yamamoto C, Murakami T, Ohtsuka A. 1988. Homology of the adductor pollicis and contrahentes muscles: a study of monkey hands. Acta Med Okayama 42:215-226.
  • Youlatos D. 2000. Functional anatomy of forelimb muscles in Guianan atelines (Platyrrhini: Primates). Ann Sci Nat Zool Biol Anim 21:137-151.
  • Ziegler AC. 1964. Brachiating adaptations of chimpanzee upper limb musculature. Am J Phys Anthropol 22:15-32.
  • Zihlman AL. 2000. Body mass in lowland gorillas: a quantitative analysis. Am J Phys Anthropol 113:6 1-78.




References for Hyoid Muscular Anatomy


  • Adams LA. 1919. A memoir on the phylogeny of the jaw muscles in recent and fossil vertebrates. Ann NY Acad Sci 28:51-166.
  • Aiello L, Dean C. 1990. An introduction to human evolutionary anatomy. San Diego: Academic Press.
  • Andrew RJ. 1963. Evolution of facial expression. Science 142:1034-1041.
  • Aziz MA. 1980. Anatomical defects in a case of trisomy 13 with a D/D translocation. Teratology 22:217-227.
  • Aziz MA. 1981. Possible "atavistic" structures in human aneuploids. Am J Phys Anthropol 54:347-53.
  • Bijvoet WF. 1908. Zur vergleichenden Morphologie des Musculus digastricus mandibulae bai den Säugetieren. Zeit Morphol Anthropol 11:249-316.
  • Bischoff TLW. 1870. Beitrage zur Anatomie des Hylobates leuciscus and zueiner vergleichenden Anatomie der Muskeln der Affen und des Menschen. Abh Bayer Akad Wiss Miinchen Math Phys Kl 10:197-297.
  • Bischoff TLW. 1880. Beitrage zur Anatomie des Gorilla. Abh Bayer Akad Wiss Miinchen Math Phys Kl 13:1-48.
  • Bluntschli H. 1929. Die kaumuskulatur des Orang-Utan und ihre Bedeutung für die Formung des Schädels. Gegen Morphol Jahrb 63:531-606.
  • Boas JEV, Paulli S. 1908. The elephant head - Studies in the comparative anatomy of the organs of the head of the Indian elephant and other mammals, 1: The facial muscles and the proboscis. Jena: Gustav Fischer.
  • Broca P. 1869. L'ordre des primates - parallele anatomique de I'homme et des singes. Bull Soc Anthropol Paris 4:228-401.
  • Brown B, Ward SC. 1988. Basicranial and facial topography in Pongo and Sivapithecus. In: Orang-Utan Biology (ed. Schwartz JH), pp.247-260. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Burrows AM. 2008. The facial expression musculature in primates and its evolutionary significance. Bioessays 30:212-225.
  • Burrows AM, Waller BM, Parr LA, Bonar CJ. 2006. Muscles of facial expression in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): descriptive, comparative and phylogenetic contexts. J Anat 208:153-167.
  • Cave AJE. 1979. The mammalian temporo-pterygoid ligament. J Zool Lond 188:517-532.
  • Champneys F. 1872. The muscles and nerves of a Chimpanzee (Troglodytes Niger) and a Cynocephalus Anubis. J Anat Physiol 6:176-211.
  • Chapman HC. 1879. On the structure of the chimpanzee. Proc Acad Nat Sci Philad 31:52-63.
  • Chapman HC. 1880. On the structure of the Orang Outang. Proc Acad Nat Sci Philad 32:160-175.
  • Chudzinski T. 1885. Sur les muscles peaussiers du crane et de la face observes sur un jeune gorilla. Bull Soc Anthropol Paris 8:583-586.
  • Clegg M. 2001. The comparative anatomy and evolution of the human vocal tract. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of London.
  • Clifford AB, Witmer LM. 2004. Case studies in novel narial anatomy, 2, the enigmatic nose of moose (Artiodactyla: Cervidae: Alces alces). J Zool 262:339-360.
  • Crelin ES. 1987. The human vocal tract: anatomy, function, development, and evolution. New York: Vantage Press Inc.
  • Dean MC. 1984. Comparative myology of the hominoid cranial base, I, the muscular relationships and bony attachments of the digastric muscle. Folia Primatol 43:234-48.
  • Deniker J. 1885. Recherches anatomiques et embryologiques sur les singes anthropoides, foetus de gorille et de gibbon. Arch Zool Exp Génerale 3:1–265.
  • Deniker J, Boulart R. 1885. Les sacs laryngiens, les excroissances adipeuses, les poumons, le cerveau, etc. des orang-utans. Nouv Arch Mus Hist Nat, ser. 3, 7: 35-56.
  • Diogo. 2008. paper colugos!
  • Diogo R, Abdala V, Lonergan N, Wood BA. 2008. From fish to modern humans - comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the head and neck musculature. J Anat 213:391-424.
  • Diogo R, Wood BA, Aziz MA, Burrows A. 2009b. On the origin, homologies and evolution of primate facial muscles, with a particular focus on hominoids and a suggested unifying nomenclature for the facial muscles of the Mammalia. J Anat 215:300-319.
  • Diogo R, Abdala V. 2010. Muscles of vertebrates - comparative anatomy, evolution, homologies and development. Enfield: Science Publishers.
  • DuBrul EL. 1958. Evolution of the speech apparatus. Springfield: Thomas.
  • Duvernoy M. 1855-1856. Des caracteres anatomiques de grands singes pseudoanthropomorphes anthropomorphes. Arch Mus Natl Hist Nat Paris 8:1-248.
  • Edgeworth FH. 1935. The cranial muscles of vertebrates. Cambridge: University press.
  • Ehlers E. 1881. Beiträge zur Kenntnis des gorilla und chimpanse. Abh d K Gesell d Wissensch du Göttingen, Phys Cl 38:3-77.
  • Falk D. 1993. Meningeal arterial patterns in great apes: implications for hominid vascular evolution. Am J Phys Anthropo1 92:81-97.
  • Falk D, Nicholls P. 1992. Meningeal arteries in Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): implications for vascular evolution in anthropoids. Am J Phys Anthropo1 89:299-308.
  • Fick R. 1895a. Vergleichend-anatomische Studien an einem erwachsenen Orang-utang. Arch Anat Physiol Anat Abt 1895:1-100.
  • Fick R. 1895b. Beobachtungen an einem zweiten envachsenen Orang-Utang und einem Schimpansen. Arch Anat Physiol Anat Abt 1895:289-318.
  • Futamura R. 1906. Uber die Entwicklung der Facialismuskulatur des Menschen. Anat Hefte 30:433-516.
  • Gasser RF. 1967. The development of the facial muscles in man. Am J Anat 120:357-376.
  • Gibbs S. 1999. Comparative soft tissue morphology of the extant Hominoidea, including Man. Unpublished PhD Thesis, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool.
  • Gibbs S, Collard M, Wood BA. 2002. Soft-tissue anatomy of the extant hominoids: a review and phylogenetic analysis. J Anat 200:3-49.
  • Göllner K. 1982. Untersuchungen über die vom N. trigeminus innervierte Kiefermusculatur des Schimpansen (Pan troglodytes, Blumenbach 1799) und des Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla, Savage and Wyman 1847)]. Gegen Morphol Jahrb 128:851-903.
  • Gratiolet LP, Alix PHE. 1866. Recherches sur l'anatomie du Troglodytes aubryi. Nouv Arch Mus Hist Nat Paris 2:1-264.
  • Gregory WK. 1929. Our face from fish to man. New York: GP Putnam’s Sons.
  • Hall BK. 1984. Developmental mechanisms underlying the formation of atavisms. Biol Rev 59:89-124.
  • Hänel H. 1932. Über die Gesichtsmuskulatur der katarrhinen Affen. Gegenbaur Morph Jahrb 71:1-76.
  • Hartmann R. 1886. Anthropoid apes. London: Keegan.
  • Himmelreich HA. 1971. M. levator veli palatini der Säugetiere. Gegenbaurs Morphol Jahrb 116:377-400.
  • Himmelreich HA. 1977. M. cephalopharyngeus der Säugetiere. Gegenbaurs Morphol Jahrb 123:556-588.
  • Hosokawa H, Kamiya T. 1961-1962. Anatomical sketches of visceral organs of the mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei). Primates 3:1-28.
  • Huber E. 1930a. Evolution of facial musculature and cutaneous field of trigeminus - Part I. Q Rev Biol 5:133-188.
  • Huber E. 1930b. Evolution of facial musculature and cutaneous field of trigeminus - Part II. Q Rev Biol 5:389-437.
  • Huber E. 1931. Evolution of facial musculature and expression. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Huber E. 1933. The facial musculature and its innervation. In: The Anatomy of the Rhesus Monkey (Hartman CG, Straus WL, eds). Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 176-188.
  • Jouffroy FK, Saban R. 1971. Musculature peaucière. In Traité de Zoologie, XVI: 3 (Mammifères) (ed. Grassé PP), pp. 477-611. Paris: Masson et Cie.
  • Kallner M. 1956. Die muskulatur und die funktion des schultergurtels und der vorderextremitat des orang-utans. Morph Jahrb 97:554-665.
  • Kanagasuntheram R. 1952-1954. Observations on the anatomy of the hoolock gibbon. Ceylon J Sci Sect G 5:11-64(1952) + 69-122(1954).
  • Kohlbrügge JHF. 1890-1892. Versuch einer Anatomie des Genus Hylobates. In: Weber M (ed.), Zoologische Ergebnisse Einer Reise in Niederländisch Ost-Indien. Leiden: Verlag von EJ Brill; pp. 211–354 (Vol. 1), 138-208 (Vol. 2).
  • Kohlbrügge JHF. 1897. Muskeln und Periphere Nerven der Primaten, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung ihrer Anomalien. Verh K Akad Wet Amsterdam Sec 2 5:1–246.
  • Laitman JT. 1977. The Ontogenetic and phylogenetic development of the upper respiratory system and basicranium in man. Unpublished PhD thesis, Yale University.
  • Laitman JT, Heimbuch RC, Crelin ES 1978. Developmental change in a basicranial line and its relationship to the upper respiratory system in living primates. Amer J Anat 152: 467-482.
  • Le Gros Clark WE. 1924. The myology of the tree-shrew (Tupaia minor). Proc Zool Soc Lond 1924:461-497.
  • Lewis WH. 1910. The development of the muscular system. In: Manual of Human Embryology, Vol. 1 (Keibel F, Mall FP, Eds.). Lippin-cott, Philadelphia, pp. 454-522.
  • Lightoller GHS. 1925. Facial muscles - the modiolus and muscles surrounding the rima oris with some remarks about the panniculus adiposus. J Anat Physiol 60:1-85.
  • Lightoller GS. 1928a. The facial muscles of three orang utans and two ceropithecidae. J Anat 63:19-81.
  • Lightoller GS. 1928b. The action of the m. mentalis in the expression of the emotion of distress. J Anat 62:319-332.
  • Lightoller GS. 1934. The facial musculature of some lesser primates and a Tupaia. Proc Zool Soc Lond 1934:259-309.
  • Lightoller GS. 1939. Probable homologues. A study of the comparative anatomy of the mandibular and hyoid arches and their musculature - Part I - comparative myology. Trans Zool Soc Lond 24:349-382.
  • Lightoller GS. 1940a. The comparative morphology of the platysma: a comparative study of the sphincter colli profundus and the tracheloplatysma. J Anat 74:390-396.
  • Lightoller GS. 1940b. The comparative morphology of the m. caninus. J Anat 74:397-402.
  • Lightoller GS. 1942. Matrices of the facialis musculature: homologization of the musculature in monotremes with that of marsupials and placentals. J Anat 76:258-269.
  • Loth E. 1931. Anthropologie des parties molles (muscles, intestins, vaisseaux, nerfs peripheriques). Paris: Mianowski-Masson et Cie.
  • MacAlister A. 1871. On some points in the myology of the chimpanzee and others of the primates. Ann Mag Nat Hist 7:341-351.
  • Macalister A. 1873. The muscular anatomy of the gorilla. Proc Royal Irish Acad, Ser 2, 1:501-506.
  • Miller RA. 1952.The musculature of Pan paniscus. Am J Anat 91:182-232.
  • Netter FH. 2006. Atlas of human anatomy (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.
  • Owen R. 1830-1831. On the anatomy of the orangutan (Simia satyrus, L.). Proc Zool Soc Lond 1:4-5, 9-10, 28-29, 66-72.
  • Parsons FG. 1898a. The muscles of mammals, with special relation to human myology, Lecture 1, The skin muscles and muscles of the head and neck. J Anat Physiol 32:428-450.
  • Pellatt A. 1979b. The facial muscles of three African primates contrasted with those of Papio ursinus. S Afr J Sci 75:436-440.
  • Raven HC. 1950. Regional anatomy of the Gorilla. In: Gregory WK (ed.), The anatomy of the Gorilla. Columbia University Press, New York, p. 15-188.
  • Rex H. 1887. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Muskulatur der Mundspalte der Affen. Morphol Jahrb 12:275-286.
  • Richmond BG. 1993. Anatomy of the orang-utan, Pongo pygmaeus abelii. Unpublished work. State University of New York, Stony Brook.
  • Rogers CR, Mooney MP, Smith TD, Weinberg SM, Waller BW, Parr LA, Docherty BA, Bonar CJ, Reinholt LE, Deleyiannis FW-B, Siegel MI, Marazita ML, Burrows AM. 2008. Comparative microanatomy of the orbicularis oris muscle between chimpanzees and humans: evolutionary divergence of lip function. J Anat 214:36-44.
  • Ruge G. 1885. Über die Gesichtsmuskulatur der halbaffen. Gegen Morph Jahrb 11:243–315.
  • Ruge G. 1887a. Untersuchungen uber die Gesichtsmuskeln der Primaten. W. Engelmann, Leipzig.
  • Ruge G. 1887b. Die vom Facialis innervirten Muskeln des Halses, Nackens und des Schädels einen jungen Gorilla. Gegen Morphol Jahrb 12:459-529.
  • Ruge G. 1897. Über das peripherische gebiet des nervus facialis boi wirbelthieren. Leipzig: Festschr f Gegenbaur.
  • Ruge G. 1910. Verbindungen des platysma mit der tiefen muskulatur des halses beim menschen. Gegen Morph Jahrb 41:708-724
  • Ruge G. 1911. Gesichtsmuskulatur und Nervus facialis der Gattung Hylobates. Morph Jahrb 44:129—177.
  • Saban R. 1968. Musculature de la tête. In: Grassé PP, editor. Traité de Zoologie, XVI: 3 (Mammifères). Paris: Masson et Cie. p. 229-472.
  • Sakka M. 1973. Anatomie comparée de l’écaille de l'occipital (squama occipitalis P.N.A.) et des muscles de la nuque chez l'homme et les pongidés, II Partie, Myologie. Mammalia 37:126–180.
  • Sakka M. 1977. Ensembles anatomiques cervico-céphaliques: port de tête et évolution des hominides, conséquences phylogéniques sur Australopithecus. Mammalia 41:85-109.
  • Sandifort G. 1840. Ontleedkundige beschouwing van een′ volwassen Orang-oetan (Simia satyrus, Linn.) van het mannelijk geslacht. Verhandelingen over de Natuurlijke geschiedenis der Nederlandische overzeesche bezittingen, door de leden der Natuurkundige commissie in Indië en andere. Schrijvers (Zoologie) 3:29–56.
  • Seiler R. 1970. Differences in the facial musculature of the nasal and upper-lip region in catarrhine primates and man. Z Morphol Anthropol 62:267-275.
  • Seiler R. 1971a. A comparison between the facial muscles of Catarrhini with long and short muzzles. Proc 3rd Int Congr Primat Zürich 1970, vol l, Basel: Karger, p. 157-162.
  • Seiler R. 1971b. Facial musculature and its influence on the facial bones of catarrhine Primates, I. Morphol Jahrb 116:122-142.
  • Seiler R. 1971c Facial musculature and its influence on the facial bones of catarrhine Primates, II. Morphol Jahrb 116:147-185.
  • Seiler R. 1971d. Facial musculature and its influence on the facial bones of catarrhine Primates, III. Morphol Jahrb 116:347-376.
  • Seiler R. 1971e. Facial musculature and its influence on the facial bones of catarrhine Primates, IV. Morphol Jahrb 116:456-481.
  • Seiler R. 1973. On the function of facial muscles in different behavioral situations - a study based on muscle morphology and electromyography. Am J Phys Anthropol 38:567-71.
  • Seiler R. 1974a. Muscles of the external ear and their function in man, chimpanzees and Macaca. Morphol Jahrb 120:78-122.
  • Seiler R. 1976. Die Gesichtsmuskeln. In: Primatologia, Handbuch der Primatenkunde, Bd. 4, Lieferung 6 (Hofer H, Schultz AH, Starck D, Eds.), 1-252. Basel: Karger.
  • Seiler R. 1977. Morphological and functional differentiation of muscles - studies on the m. frontalis, auricularis superior and auricularis anterior of primates including man. Verh Anat Ges 71:1385-1388.
  • Seiler R. 1979a. Criteria of the homology and phylogeny of facial muscles in primates including man, I, Prosimia and Platyrrhina. Morphol Jahrb 125:191-217.
  • Seiler R. 1979b. Criteria of the homology and phylogeny of facial muscles in primates including man, II, Catarrhina. Morphol Jahrb 125:298-323.
  • Seiler R. 1980. Ontogenesis of facial muscles in primates. Morphol Jahrb 126:841-864.
  • Sommer A. 1907. Das Muskelsystem des Gorilla. Jena Z Naturwiss 42:181-308.
  • Sonntag CF. 1923. On the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the chimpanzee. Proc Zool Soc Lond 23:323-429.
  • Sonntag CF. 1924a. On the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the orang-outan. Proc Zool Soc Lond 24:349-450.
  • Sonntag CF. 1924b. The morphology and evolution of the apes and man. London: John Bale Sons and Danielsson, Ltd.
  • Sperino G. 1897. Anatomia del cimpanzè (Anthropopithecus Troglodytes). Torino: Unione Tipografica.
  • Sprague JA. 1944a. The hyoid region in the insectivora. Am J Anat 74:175-216.
  • Starck D, Schneider R. 1960. Respirationsorgane. In Primatologia III/2 (ed. Hofer H, Schultz AH, Starck D). S. Karger, Basel, pp. 423-587.
  • Sullivan WE, Osgood CW. 1925. The facialis musculature of the orang, Simia satyrus. Anat Rec 29:195-343.
  • Sutton JB. 1883. On some points in the anatomy of the chimpanzee (Anthropopithecus troglodytes). J Anat Physiol 18:66-85.
  • Swindler DR, Wood CD. 1973. An atlas of primate gross anatomy: baboon, chimpanzee and men. Seattle, University of Washington Press.
  • Terminologia Anatomica. 1998. Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology. Stuttgard: Georg Thieme.
  • Thomson A. 1915. On the presence of genial tubercles on the mandible of man, and their suggested association with the faculty of speech. J Anat Physiol 50:43-74.
  • Toldt C. 1905. Der Winkelforsatz des Unterkiefers beim Menschen und bei den Saugetieren und die Beziehungen der Kaumuskeln zu demselben II Teil. Sitz Kaiserl Akad Wiss Wien Mathem-naturw Klasse Bd 114:315-476.
  • Toldt C. 1907. Der vordere Bauch des M. Digastricus mand. und seine Variationen beim Menschen. Sitz Akad Wiss Wien 116:1-373.
  • Toldt C. 1908. Der vordere Bauch des M. digastricus mandibulae und seine Varietaten beim Menschen, II. Sitz Akad Wiss Wien 117:229-231.
  • Tyson E. 1699. Orang-Outang sive Homo sylvestris, or the anatomy of a pygmie compared to that of a monkey, an ape and a man. T. Bennet: London.
  • Virchow H. 1915. Gesichtsmuskeln des Schimpansen. Abh Preuss Akad Wiss 1:l-81.
  • Vrolik W. 1841. Recherches d' anatornie comparé, sur le chimpanzé. Johannes Miller, Amsterdam.
  • Wall CE, Larson SG, Stern JT. 1994. EMG of the digastric muscle in gibbon and orangutan: functional consequences of the loss of the anterior digastric in orangutans. Am J Phys Anthropol 94: 549-567.
  • Waller BM, Vick SJ, Parr LA, Bard KA, Smith Pasqualini MC, Gothard K, Fuglevand A. 2006. Intramuscular electrical stimulation of facial muscles in humans and chimpanzees: Duchenne revisited and extended. Emotion 6:367-382.
  • Waller BM, Burrows AM, Cray JJ. 2008a. Selection for universal facial emotion. Emotion 8:435-439.
  • Weidenreich F. 1951. Morphology of solo man, 3. Anthropol Pap Am Mus Nat Hist 43:205-290.
  • Wilder B. 1862. Contributions to the comparative myology of the chimpanzee. Boston J Nat Hist 6:352-384.
  • Winkler LA. 1989. Morphology and relationships of the orangutan fatty cheek pads. Am J Primatol 17:305-320.
  • Winkler LA. 1991. Morphology and variability of masticatory structures in the orangutan. Int J Primat 12:45-65.




References for Branchial Muscular Anatomy


  • Aiello L, Dean C. 1990. An introduction to human evolutionary anatomy. San Diego: Academic Press.
  • Andrews P, Groves CP. 1976. Gibbons and brachiation. In: Gibbon and Siamang, Vol. 4, D.M. Rumbaugh(ed.), pp. 167-218 Karger, Basel).
  • Ashton EH & Oxnard CE. 1963. The musculature of the primate shoulder. Trans Zoo1 Soc Lond 29:553-650.
  • Avril C. Kehlkopf und Kehlsack des Schimpansen (Pan troglodytes). Gegenbaurs Morphol Jahrb 105:74–129.
  • Aziz MA. 1980. Anatomical defects in a case of trisomy 13 with a D/D translocation. Teratology 22:217-227.
  • Aziz MA. 1981. Possible "atavistic" structures in human aneuploids. Am J Phys Anthropol 54:347-53.Barnard WS. 1875. Observations on the membral musculation of Simia satyrus (Orang) and the comparative myology of man and the apes. Proc Amer Assoc Adv Sci.24:112-144.
  • Beddard FE. 1893. Contributions to the anatomy of the anthropoid apes. Trans Zool Soc Lond 13:177-218.
  • Bischoff TLW. 1870. Beitrage zur Anatornie des Hylobates leuciscus and zueiner vergleichenden Anatomie der Muskeln der Affen und des Menschen. Abh Bayer Akad Wiss Miinchen Math Phys Kl 10:197-297.
  • Bischoff TLW. 1880. Beitrage zur Anatomie des Gorilla. Abh Bayer Akad Wiss Miinchen Math Phys Kl 13:1-48.
  • Bluntschli H. 1929. Die kaumuskulatur des Orang-Utan und ihre Bedeutung für die Formung des Schädels. Gegen Morphol Jahrb 63:531-606.
  • Boas JEV, Paulli S. 1908. The elephant head - Studies in the comparative anatomy of the organs of the head of the Indian elephant and other mammals, 1: The facial muscles and the proboscis. Jena: Gustav Fischer.
  • Brandes G. 1932. Über den Kehlkopf des Orang-Utans in verschiedenen Altersstadien mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Kehlsackfrage. Gegenbaur Morph Jahrb 69:1.61.
  • Broca P. 1869. L'ordre des primates - parallele anatomique de I'homme et des singes. Bull Soc Anthropol Paris 4:228-401.
  • Brown B, Ward SC. 1988. Basicranial and facial topography in Pongo and Sivapithecus. In: Orang-Utan Biology (ed. Schwartz JH), pp.247-260. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Burrows AM, Waller BM, Parr LA, Bonar CJ. 2006. Muscles of facial expression in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): descriptive, comparative and phylogenetic contexts. J Anat 208:153-167.
  • Cave AJE. 1979. The mammalian temporo-pterygoid ligament. J Zool Lond 188:517-532.
  • Champneys F. 1872. The muscles and nerves of a Chimpanzee (Troglodytes Niger) and a Cynocephalus Anubis. J Anat Physiol 6:176-211.
  • Chapman HC. 1879. On the structure of the chimpanzee. Proc Acad Nat Sci Philad 31:52-63.
  • Chapman HC. 1880. On the structure of the orang outang. Proc Acad Nat Sci Philad 32:160-175.
  • Church WS. 1861-1862. On the myology of the orang utang (Simia morio). Natl Hist Rev 1:510-516; 2:82-94.
  • Clegg M. 2001. The comparative anatomy and evolution of the human vocal tract. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of London.
  • Crelin ES. 1987. The human vocal tract: anatomy, function, development, and evolution. New York: Vantage Press Inc.
  • Dean MC. 1984. Comparative myology of the hominoid cranial base - I - the muscular relationships and bony attachments of the digastric muscle. Folia Primatol 43:234-48.
  • Dean MC. 1985. Comparative myology of the hominoid cranial base - II - the muscles of the prevertebral and upper pharyngeal region. Folia Primatol 44:40-51.
  • Deniker J. 1885. Recherches anatomiques et embryologiques sur les singes anthropoides, foetus de gorille et de gibbon. Arch Zool Exp Génerale 3:1–265.
  • Donisch E. 1973. A comparative study of the back muscles of gibbon and man. In DM Rumbaugh (ed.): Gibbon and Siamang, Vol. 2. Basel: Karger, pp. 99-120.
  • Duckworth WLH. 1912. On some points in the anatomy of the plica cocalis. J Anat Physiol 47:80-115.
  • Dunlap SS, Thorington RW, Aziz MA. 1985. Forelimb anatomy of New World monkeys: myology and the interpretation of primitive anthropoid models. Am J Phys Anthropol 68:499-517.
  • Duvernoy M. 1855-1856. Des caracteres anatomiques de grands singes pseudoanthropomorphes anthropomorphes. Arch Mus Natl Hist Nat Paris 8:1-248.
  • Edgeworth FH. 1935. The cranial muscles of vertebrates. Cambridge: University press.
  • Eisler P. 1890. Das Gefäss- und periphere Nervensystem des Gorilla. Tausch and Grosse, Talle.
  • Falk D. 1975 .Comparative anatomy of the larynx in man and the chimpanzee: implications for language in Neanderthal. Am J Phys Anthropol. 43:123-32.
  • Fick R. 1895a. Vergleichend-anatomische Studien an einem erwachsenen Orang-utang. Arch Anat Physiol Anat Abt 1895:1-100.
  • Fick R. 1895b. Beobachtungen an einem zweiten envachsenen Orang-Utang und einem Schimpansen. Arch Anat Physiol Anat Abt 1895:289-318.
  • Fürbringer M. 1875. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Kehlkopfmuskulatur. Jena: Verlag von Hermann.
  • Gasser RF. 1967. The development of the facial muscles in man. Am J Anat 120:357-376.
  • Giacomini C. 1897. 'Plica semilunaris' et larynx chez les singes anthropomorphes. Arch Ital Biol 28:98-119.
  • Gibbs S. 1999. Comparative soft tissue morphology of the extant Hominoidea, including Man. Unpublished PhD Thesis, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool.
  • Gibbs S, Collard M, Wood BA. 2002. Soft-tissue anatomy of the extant hominoids: a review and phylogenetic analysis. J Anat 200:3-49.
  • Gratiolet LP, Alix PHE. 1866. Recherches sur l'anatomie du Troglodytes aubryi. Nouv Arch Mus Hist Nat Paris 2:1-264.
  • Gregory WK. 1929. Our face from fish to man. New York: GP Putnam’s Sons.
  • Harrison DFN. 1995. The anatomy and physiology of the mammalian Larynx. Cambridge: University Press.
  • Hartmann R. 1886. Anthropoid apes. London: Keegan.
  • Hepburn D. 1892. The comparative anatomy of the muscles and nerves of the superior and inferior extremities of the anthropoid apes: I - Myology of the superior extermety. J Anat Physiol 26: 149-186.
  • Hill WCO. 1939. Observations on a giant Sumatran orang. Am J Phys Anthropol 24:449-510.
  • Himmelreich HA. 1971. M. levator veli palatini der Säugetiere. Gegenbaurs Morphol Jahrb 116:377-400.
  • Himmelreich HA. 1977. M. cephalopharyngeus der Säugetiere. Gegenbaurs Morphol Jahrb 123:556-588.
  • Hosokawa H, Kamiya T. 1961-1962. Anatomical sketches of visceral organs of the mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei). Primates 3:1-28.
  • House EL. 1953. A myology of the pharyngeal region of the albino rat. Anat Rec 116:363-381.
  • Huber E. 1930a. Evolution of facial musculature and cutaneous field of trigeminus - Part I. Q Rev Biol 5:133-188.
  • Huber E. 1930b. Evolution of facial musculature and cutaneous field of trigeminus - Part II. Q Rev Biol 5:389-437.
  • Huber E. 1931. Evolution of facial musculature and expression. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Huntington GS. 1903. Present problems of myological research and the significance and classification of muscular variations. Am J Anat 2:157-175.
  • Kallner M. 1956. Die muskulatur und die funktion des schultergurtels und der vorderextremitat des orang-utans. Morph Jahrb 97:554-665.
  • Kanagasuntheram R. 1952-1954. Observations on the anatomy of the hoolock gibbon. Ceylon J Sci Sect G 5:11-64(1952) + 69-122(1954).
  • Kelemen G. 1948.The anatomical basis of phonation in the chimpanzee. J Morphol 82:229-256.
  • Kelemen G. 1969. Anatomy of the larynx and the anatomical basis of vocal performance. In Bourne GH (ed), The Chimpanzee - Vol 1 - Anatomy, behaviour and diseases of chimpanzees. Basel, Karger, 35-186.
  • Keith A. 1896. A variation that occurs in the manubrium stemi of higher primates. J Anat Phys 30:275-279.
  • Kleinschmidt A. 1938. Die Schlund-und Kehlorgane des Gorillas “Bobby” unter besonderer - Berücksichtigung der gleichen Organe von Mensch und Orang - Ein Beitrag zur vergleichenden Anatomie des kehlkopfes. Morphol Jahrb 81:78-157.
  • Kleinschmidt A. 1950. Zur anatomie des kehlkopfs der Anthropoiden. Anat Anz 97:367-372.
  • Kohlbrügge JHF. 1890-1892. Versuch einer Anatomie des Genus Hylobates. In: Weber M (ed.), Zoologische Ergebnisse Einer Reise in Niederländisch Ost-Indien. Leiden: Verlag von EJ Brill; pp. 211–354 (Vol. 1), 138-208 (Vol. 2).
  • Kohlbrügge JHF. 1896. Der larynx und die stimmbildung der Quadrumana. Natuurk T Ned Ind 55:157-175.
  • Kohlbrügge JHF. 1897. Muskeln und Periphere Nerven der Primaten, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung ihrer Anomalien. Verh K Akad Wet Amsterdam Sec 2 5:1–246.
  • Körner O. 1884. Beiträge zur vergleichenden Anatomie und Physiologie des Kehlkopfes der Säugethiere und des Menschen. Abh Senckenb Naturforsch Ges 13:147-261.
  • Jordan J. 1971a. Studies on the structure of the organ of voice and vocalization in the chimpanzee, Part 1. Folia Morphol 30:99- 117.
  • Jordan J. 1971b. Studies on the structure of the organ of voice and vocalization in the chimpanzee, Part 2. Folia Morphol 30:222-248.
  • Jordan J. 1971c. Studies on the structure of the organ of voice and vocalization in the chimpanzee, Part 3. Folia Morphol 30:323-340.
  • Jouffroy FK, Saban R. 1971. Musculature peaucière. In Traité de Zoologie, XVI: 3 (Mammifères) (ed. Grassé PP), pp. 477-611. Paris: Masson et Cie.
  • Laitman JT. 1977. The Ontogenetic and phylogenetic development of the upper respiratory system and basicranium in man. Unpublished PhD thesis, Yale University.
  • Laitman JT, Heimbuch RC, Crelin ES 1978. Developmental change in a basicranial line and its relationship to the upper respiratory system in living primates. Amer J Anat 152: 467-482.
  • Larson SG, Stern JT, Jungers WL. 1991. EMG of serratus anterior and trapezius in the chimpanzee: scapular rotators revisited. Am J Phys Anthropol 85:71-84.
  • Le Gros Clark WE. 1924. The myology of the tree-shrew (Tupaia minor). Proc Zool Soc Lond 1924:461-497.
  • Le Gros Clark WE. 1926. On the anatomy of the pen-tailed tree-shrew (Ptilocercus lowii). Proc Zool Soc Lond 1926:1178-1309.
  • Lee SH, Lee JK, Jin SM, Kim JH, Park IS, Chu HR, Ahn HY, Rho YS. 2009. Anatomical variations of the spinal accessory nerve and its relevance to level IIb lymph nodes. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 141:639-644.
  • Lewis WH. 1910. The development of the muscular system. In: Manual of Human Embryology, Vol. 1 (Keibel F, Mall FP, Eds.). Lippin-cott, Philadelphia, pp. 454-522.
  • Lightoller GHS. 1925. Facial muscles - the modiolus and muscles surrounding the rima oris with some remarks about the panniculus adiposus. J Anat Physiol 60:1-85.
  • Lightoller GS. 1928a. The facial muscles of three orang utans and two ceropithecidae. J Anat 63:19-81.
  • Lightoller GS. 1934. The facial musculature of some lesser primates and a Tupaia. Proc Zool Soc Lond 1934:259-309.
  • Lightoller GS. 1940a. The comparative morphology of the platysma: a comparative study of the sphincter colli profundus and the trachelo-platysma. J Anat 74:390-396.
  • Lightoller GS. 1940b. The comparative morphology of the m. caninus. J Anat 74:397-402.
  • Lightoller GS. 1942. Matrices of the facialis musculature: homologization of the musculature in monotremes with that of marsupials and placentals. J Anat 76:258-269.
  • Loth E. 1931. Anthropologie des parties molles (muscles, intestins, vaisseaux, nerfs peripheriques). Paris: Mianowski-Masson et Cie.
  • MacAlister A. 1871. On some points in the myology of the chimpanzee and others of the primates. Ann Mag Nat Hist 7:341-351.
  • Macalister A. 1873. The muscular anatomy of the gorilla. Proc Royal Irish Acad, Ser 2, 1:501-506.
  • Maranillo E, Vazquez T, Mirapeix R, Leon X, McHanwell S, Quer M, Sanudo JR. 2009. Ceratocricoid Muscle: An Embryological and Anatomical Study. Clin Anat 22:463-470.
  • McKenzie J. 1955. The morphology of the sternomastoid and trapezius muscles. J Anat 89:526-531.
  • Michaëlis P. 1903. Beitrage zur vergleichenden Myologie des Cynocephalus babuin, Simia satyrus, Troglodytes niger. Arch Anat Phys Anat Abt 1:205-256.
  • Michilsens F, Vereecke EE, D’Août K, Aerts P. 2009. Functional anatomy of the gibbon forelimb: adaptations to a brachiating lifestyle. J Anat 215:335-354.
  • Miller RA 1932. Evolution of the pectoral girdle and forelimb in the primates. Amer J Phys Anthropol 17:1-56.
  • Miller RA. 1952.The musculature of Pan paniscus. Am J Anat 91:182-232.
  • Mustafa MA. 2006. Neuroanatomy. 10th National Congress of Anatomy Bordum, Turkey, September 5:6-10.
  • Netter FH. 2006. Atlas of human anatomy (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.
  • Negus VE. 1949. The comparative anatomy and physiology of the larynx. New York: Hafner Publishing Company.
  • Noden DM, Epstein ML. 2010. Embryonic origins of avian and mammalian laryngeal musculoskeletal structures. FASEB J 24:172.1.
  • Owen R. 1830-1831. On the anatomy of the orangutan (Simia satyrus, L.). Proc Zool Soc Lond 1:4-5, 9-10, 28-29, 66-72.
  • Owen R. 1868. The Anatomy of Vertebrates, Vol. 3: Mammals. Longmans, Green & Co., London.
  • Parsons FG. 1898a. The muscles of mammals, with special relation to human myology, Lecture 1, The skin muscles and muscles of the head and neck. J Anat Physiol 32:428-450.
  • Pellatt A. 1979b. The facial muscles of three African primates contrasted with those of Papio ursinus. S Afr J Sci 75:436-440.
  • Piekarski N, Olsson L. 2007. Muscular derivatives of the cranialmost somites revealed by long-term fate mapping in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). Evol & Dev 9:566-578.
  • Plattner F. 1923. Über die ventral-innervierte und die genuine. rückenmuskulatur bei drei anthropomorphen (Gorilla gina, Hylobates und Troglodytes niger). Morphol Jb:241-280.
  • Preuschoft H. 1965. Muskeln and Gelenk der Vorderextremitat des Gorillas. Morph Jb 107:99-183.
  • Primrose A. 1899. The anatomy of the orang-outang (Simia satyrus), an account of some of its external characteristics, and the myology of the extremities. Trans Royal Can Inst 6:507-594.
  • Primrose A. 1900. The anatomy of the orang-outang. Univ Toronto Stud Anat Ser 1:1-94.
  • Raven HC. 1950. Regional anatomy of the Gorilla. In: Gregory WK (ed.), The anatomy of the Gorilla. Columbia University Press, New York, p. 15-188.
  • Richmond BG. 1993. Anatomy of the orang-utan, Pongo pygmaeus abelii. Unpublished work. State University of New York, Stony Brook.
  • Ruge G. 1887a. Untersuchungen uber die Gesichtsmuskeln der Primaten. W. Engelmann, Leipzig.
  • Ruge G. 1887b. Die vom Facialis innervirten Muskeln des Halses, Nackens und des Schädels einen jungen Gorilla. Gegenbaur's Morphol. Jahrb. 12:459-529.
  • Saban R. 1968. Musculature de la tête. In: Grassé PP, editor. Traité de Zoologie, XVI: 3 (Mammifères). Paris: Masson et Cie. p. 229-472.
  • Sakka M. 1973. Anatomie comparée de l’écaille de l'occipital (squama occipitalis P.N.A.) et des muscles de la nuque chez l'homme et les pongidés, II Partie, Myologie. Mammalia 37:126–180.
  • Sandifort G. 1840. Ontleedkundige beschouwing van een′ volwassen Orang-oetan (Simia satyrus, Linn.) van het mannelijk geslacht. Verhandelingen over de Natuurlijke geschiedenis der Nederlandische overzeesche bezittingen, door de leden der Natuurkundige commissie in Indië en andere. Schrijvers (Zoologie) 3:29–56.
  • Schneider R. 1964. Der Larynx der Säugetiere. Handbuch der Zoologie 5:1-128.
  • Schück AC. 1913a. Beiträge zur Myologie der Primaten, I - der m. lat. dorsi und der m. latissimo-tricipitalis. Morphol Jahrb 45:267-294.
  • Schück AC. 1913b. Beiträge zur Myologie der Primaten, II - 1 die gruppe sterno-cleido-mastoideus, trapezius, omo-cervicalis, 2 die gruppe levator scapulae, rhomboides, serratus anticus. Morphol Jahrb 46:355-418.
  • Shiozaki K, Abe S, Agematsu H, Mitarashi S, Sakiyama K, Hashimoto M, Ide Y. 2007. Anatomical study of accessory nerve innervation relating to functional neck dissection. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 65:22-29.
  • Smith KK. 1992. The evolution of the mammalian pharynx. Zool J Linn Soc 104:313-349.
  • Sommer A. 1907. Das Muskelsystem des Gorilla. Jena Z Naturwiss 42:181-308.
  • Sonntag CF. 1923. On the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the chimpanzee. Proc Zool Soc Lond 23:323-429.
  • Sonntag CF. 1924a. On the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the orang-outan. Proc Zool Soc Lond 24:349-450.
  • Sonntag CF. 1924b. The morphology and evolution of the apes and man. London: John Bale Sons and Danielsson, Ltd.
  • Sperino G. 1897. Anatomia del cimpanzè (Anthropopithecus Troglodytes). Torino: Unione Tipografica.
  • Sprague JA. 1944a. The hyoid region in the insectivora. Am J Anat 74:175-216.
  • Sprague JM. 1944b. The innervation of the pharynx in the rhesus monkey, and the formation of the pharyngeal plexus in primates. Anat Rec 90:197-208.
  • Starck D, Schneider R. 1960. Respirationsorgane. In Primatologia III/2 (ed. Hofer H, Schultz AH, Starck D). S. Karger, Basel, pp. 423-587.
  • Stewart TD. 1936. The musculature of the anthropoids, I, neck and trunk. Am J Phys Anthropol 21:141-204.
  • Sullivan WE, Osgood CW. 1925. The facialis musculature of the orang, Simia satyrus. Anat Rec 29:195-343.
  • Sullivan WE, Osgood CW. 1927.The musculature of the superior extremity of the orang-utan, Simia satyrus. Anat Rec 35:193-239.
  • Sutton JB. 1883. On some points in the anatomy of the chimpanzee (Anthropopithecus troglodytes). J Anat Physiol 18:66-85.
  • Swindler DR, Wood CD. 1973. An atlas of primate gross anatomy: baboon, chimpanzee and men. Seattle, University of Washington Press.
  • Tautz C, Rohen JW. 1967. Ueber den konstruktiven Bau des M. vocalis beim Menschen. Anat Anz 120:409-429.
  • Terminologia Anatomica. 1998. Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology. Stuttgard: Georg Thieme.
  • Toldt C. 1905. Der Winkelforsatz des Unterkiefers beim Menschen und bei den Saugetieren und die Beziehungen der Kaumuskeln zu demselben II Teil. Sitz Kaiserl Akad Wiss Wien Mathem-naturw Klasse Bd 114:315-476.
  • Toldt C. 1907. Der vordere Bauch des M. Digastricus mand. und seine Variationen beim Menschen. Sitz Akad Wiss Wien 116:1-373.
  • Toldt C. 1908. Der vordere Bauch des M. digastricus mandibulae und seine Varietaten beim Menschen, II. Sitz Akad Wiss Wien 117:229-231.
  • Tschachmachtschjan H. 1912. Über die Pectoral- und Abdominal- musculatur und über die Scalenus-Gruppe bei Primataten. Morph Jb 44:297–370.
  • Tuttle RH, Basmajian JV. 1976. Electromyography of pongid shoulder muscles and hominoid evolution I - retractors of the humerus and rotators of the scapula. Yearbook Phys Anthropol 20:491-497.
  • Tyson E. 1699. Orang-Outang sive Homo sylvestris, or the anatomy of a pygmie compared to that of a monkey, an ape and a man. T. Bennet: London.
  • Virchow H. 1915. Gesichtsmuskeln des Schimpansen. Abh Preuss Akad Wiss 1:l-81.
  • Vrolik W. 1841. Recherches d' anatornie comparé, sur le chimpanzé. Johannes Miller, Amsterdam.
  • Warnots L. 1885. Identité de la musculature du larynx chez l'homme et chez le chimpansé. Bull soc Anthropol Bruxelles 4:59-62.
  • Weidenreich F. 1951. Morphology of solo man, 3. Anthropol Pap Am Mus Nat Hist 43:205-290.
  • Wilder B. 1862. Contributions to the comparative myology of the chimpanzee. Boston J Nat Hist 6:352-384.
  • Wind J. 1970. On the phylogeny and ontogeny of the human larynx. Groningen: Wolters-Noordhoff.
  • Wood Jones F. 1940. The nature of the soft palate. J Anat 74:147-170.





RELATED READINGS & REFERENCES

THE 

VISIBLE

APE
PROJECT

QUICK NAVIGATION MENU

The Visible Ape Project is funded by NSF grant #1856329.

For inquiries or contributions please send us an email at: visibleapeproject@gmail.com